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Feasibility of Innovative Tools and Methods to Improve Household Surveys in Complex Urban Settings: Multiple Methods Analysis of the Surveys for Urban Equity (SUE) Study in Kathmandu, Dhaka, and Hanoi

29 Pages Posted: 14 Oct 2019

See all articles by Dana Thomson

Dana Thomson

University of Southampton - Department of Social Statistics

Radheshyam Bhattarai

Health Research and Social Development Forum

Sudeepa Khanal

Health Research and Social Development Forum

Shraddha Manandhar

Health Research and Social Development Forum

Rajeev Dhungel

Health Research and Social Development Forum

Subash Gajurel

Health Research and Social Development Forum

Joseph Paul Hicks

University of Leeds

Duong Minh Duc

Hanoi University of Public Health

Junnatul Ferdoush

Centre for Injury Prevention and Research – Bangladesh

Tarana Ferdous

Advancement through Research and Knowledge Foundation

Nushrat Jahan Urmy

Centre for Injury Prevention and Research – Bangladesh

Riffat Ara Shawon

Centre for Injury Prevention and Research – Bangladesh

Khuong Quynh Long

Hanoi University of Public Health

Ak Narayan Poudel

University of Leeds

Chris Cartwright

University of Leeds

Hilary Wallace

University of Notre Dame Australia - School of Medicine

Tim Ensor

University of Leeds

Sushil Baral

Health Research and Social Development Forum

Saidur Mashreky

Centre for Injury Prevention and Research – Bangladesh

Rumana Huque

Advancement through Research and Knowledge Foundation

Hoang Van Minh

Hanoi University of Public Health

Helen Elsey

Nuffield Centre for International Health and Development/Academic Unit of Public Health

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Abstract

Background: The methods used in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) household surveys have not changed in four decades; however, LMIC societies have changed substantially. This mismatch may result in unintentional exclusion of vulnerable and mobile urban populations. We compare three survey method innovations with standard survey methods in Kathmandu, Dhaka, and Hanoi, and summarize feasibility of our innovative methods in terms of time, cost, skill requirements, and experiences.

Methods: We used descriptive statistics and regression techniques to compare respondent characteristics in samples drawn with innovative versus standard survey designs and household definitions, adjusting for sample probability weights and clustering. Feasibility of innovative methods was evaluated using a thematic framework analysis of focus group discussions with survey field staff, and via survey planner budgets.

Findings: We found that a common household definition excluded single adult (46.9%) and migrant headed households (6.7%), as well as non-married (8.5%), unemployed (10.5%), disabled (9.3%), and studying (14.3%) adults. Further, standard two-stage sampling resulted in fewer single adult and non-family households than an innovative one-stage design; however, two-stage sampling resulted in more tent and shack dwellers. Our survey innovations provided good value for money and field staff experiences were neutral or positive. Staff recommended streamlining field tools and pairing technical and survey content experts during fieldwork.

Interpretation: This evidence of unintentional exclusion of vulnerable and mobile urban populations in LMIC household surveys is deeply concerning, and underscores the need to modernize survey methods and practices.

Funding: UK Medical Research Council and UK Economic and Social Research Council.

Declaration of Interest: All authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval: Ethics approvals were obtained from the University of Leeds (ref:MREC16-137), University of Southampton (ref:26819), Nepal Health Research Council (ref:1761), Bangladesh Medical Research Council (ref:BMRC/NREC/RP/2016-2019/317), and Hanoi University of Public Health (ref:324/2017/YTCC-HD3).

Keywords: Nepal, Vietnam, Bangladesh, gridded population sampling, GridSample, OpenStreetMap, GeoODK, cross-sectional design, urban, household survey

Suggested Citation

Thomson, Dana and Bhattarai, Radheshyam and Khanal, Sudeepa and Manandhar, Shraddha and Dhungel, Rajeev and Gajurel, Subash and Hicks, Joseph Paul and Duc, Duong Minh and Ferdoush, Junnatul and Ferdous, Tarana and Urmy, Nushrat Jahan and Shawon, Riffat Ara and Long, Khuong Quynh and Poudel, Ak Narayan and Cartwright, Chris and Wallace, Hilary and Ensor, Tim and Baral, Sushil and Mashreky, Saidur and Huque, Rumana and Minh, Hoang Van and Elsey, Helen, Feasibility of Innovative Tools and Methods to Improve Household Surveys in Complex Urban Settings: Multiple Methods Analysis of the Surveys for Urban Equity (SUE) Study in Kathmandu, Dhaka, and Hanoi (October 11, 2019). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3466987 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3466987

Dana Thomson (Contact Author)

University of Southampton - Department of Social Statistics ( email )

United Kingdom

Radheshyam Bhattarai

Health Research and Social Development Forum

Sudeepa Khanal

Health Research and Social Development Forum

Shraddha Manandhar

Health Research and Social Development Forum

Rajeev Dhungel

Health Research and Social Development Forum

Subash Gajurel

Health Research and Social Development Forum

Joseph Paul Hicks

University of Leeds

Leeds, LS2 9JT
United Kingdom

Duong Minh Duc

Hanoi University of Public Health

138 Giangvo
Hanoi
Vietnam

Junnatul Ferdoush

Centre for Injury Prevention and Research – Bangladesh

India

Tarana Ferdous

Advancement through Research and Knowledge Foundation

India

Nushrat Jahan Urmy

Centre for Injury Prevention and Research – Bangladesh

India

Riffat Ara Shawon

Centre for Injury Prevention and Research – Bangladesh

India

Khuong Quynh Long

Hanoi University of Public Health

138 Giangvo
Hanoi
Vietnam

Ak Narayan Poudel

University of Leeds

Leeds, LS2 9JT
United Kingdom

Chris Cartwright

University of Leeds

Leeds, LS2 9JT
United Kingdom

Hilary Wallace

University of Notre Dame Australia - School of Medicine

PO Box 1225
Fremantle, Western Australia 6959
Australia

Tim Ensor

University of Leeds

Leeds, LS2 9JT
United Kingdom

Sushil Baral

Health Research and Social Development Forum

Saidur Mashreky

Centre for Injury Prevention and Research – Bangladesh

India

Rumana Huque

Advancement through Research and Knowledge Foundation

India

Hoang Van Minh

Hanoi University of Public Health

138 Giangvo
Hanoi
Vietnam

Helen Elsey

Nuffield Centre for International Health and Development/Academic Unit of Public Health ( email )

Leeds
United Kingdom
00 44 113 3436953 (Phone)

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