Inversion of Convex Ordering: Local Volatility Does Not Maximize the Price of VIX Futures
SIAM Journal on Financial Mathematics, 11-1 (2020), pp. SC-1-SC-13
10 Pages Posted: 22 Oct 2019 Last revised: 2 Mar 2020
Date Written: October 11, 2019
It has often been stated that, within the class of continuous stochastic volatility models calibrated to vanillas, the price of a VIX future is maximized by the Dupire local volatility model. In this article we prove that this statement is incorrect: we build a continuous stochastic volatility model in which a VIX future is strictly more expensive than in its associated local volatility model. More generally, in this model, strictly convex payoffs on a squared VIX are strictly cheaper than in the associated local volatility model. This corresponds to an inversion of convex ordering between local and stochastic variances, when moving from instantaneous variances to squared VIX, as convex payoffs on instantaneous variances are always cheaper in the local volatility model. We thus prove that this inversion of convex ordering, which is observed in the SPX market for short VIX maturities, can be produced by a continuous stochastic volatility model. We also prove that the model can be extended so that, as suggested by market data, the convex ordering is preserved for long maturities.
Keywords: VIX, VIX futures, stochastic volatility, local volatility, convex order, inversion of convex ordering
JEL Classification: G13
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation