Climate Change, Migration and Voice: An Explanation for the Immobility Paradox

41 Pages Posted: 14 Oct 2019

See all articles by Michel A. R. Beine

Michel A. R. Beine

University of Luxemburg; CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute)

Ilan Noy

Victoria University of Wellington

Christopher Robert Parsons

The University of Western Australia - Department of Economics

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Abstract

This paper sheds light on the apparent paradox, wherein populations adversely affected by climatic conditions fail to migrate as much as would otherwise be expected. Drawing on Hirschman's treatise on Exit, Voice and Loyalty, we develop a simple model, which highlights the theoretical case for a substitution effect between voicing and emigration. We subsequently provide causal evidence of voicing representing a new mechanism through which countries adapt to climate change, implementing wage differentials and changes in visa policies at destination as instruments. More intense voicing, as captured by greater numbers of press reports, is associated with lower emigration rates. This substitution effect holds for both internal and international voicing. Our results suggest that restrictions on mobility could result in increasing voicing, both within and between countries.

Keywords: emigration, climate change, voicing, trapped populations

JEL Classification: F22, O15, P16, 057

Suggested Citation

Beine, Michel A. R. and Noy, Ilan and Parsons, Christopher Robert, Climate Change, Migration and Voice: An Explanation for the Immobility Paradox. IZA Discussion Paper No. 12640. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3468588

Michel A. R. Beine (Contact Author)

University of Luxemburg ( email )

L-1511 Luxembourg
Luxembourg

CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute)

Poschinger Str. 5
Munich, DE-81679
Germany

Ilan Noy

Victoria University of Wellington ( email )

P.O. Box 600
Wellington, 6140
New Zealand

Christopher Robert Parsons

The University of Western Australia - Department of Economics ( email )

35 Stirling Highway
Crawley, Western Australia 6009
Australia

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