Fundamentals on the Molecular Mechanism of Action of Antimicrobial Peptides
34 Pages Posted: 29 Oct 2019 First Look: Accepted
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are produced by several organisms as their first line of defense. Constituted by amino acids, they may present different mechanisms of action. The antimicrobial activity can be used by the peptide-producing organism itself, as innate immune strategy, or in the industry, applying as natural source preservatives. Understanding the possibilities of the operation of these compounds is a prerequisite for the development of effective uses, as well as for the establishment of combinations, which can even expand their applications considering the possibilities of genetic manipulations. Thus, the objective of this article is to review the basic principles of AMPs acting. The main mechanisms of peptides are related to changes in the physiological function of membranes, but there are also alterations in cytoplasmic components. We gathered the three most described and accepted, the barrel-stave, the carpet and the wormhole mechanisms, along with the possible microorganisms' mechanisms of resistance towards AMPs action. Such information may contribute to the process of choosing the best peptide to obtain an expected action against a given microorganism, optimizing the handling of financial and human resources in research projects.
Keywords: Antimicrobials resistance, Bioactive molecules, Peptides biochemistry
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