Empowerment in Agricultural Value Chains: Mixed Methods Evidence from the Philippines

IFPRI Discussion Paper 1881

48 Pages Posted: 12 Nov 2019

See all articles by Hazel Jean Malapit

Hazel Jean Malapit

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

Catherine Ragasa

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

Elena M. Martinez

CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH)

Deborah Rubin

Cultural Practice, LLC

Greg Seymour

CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets

Agnes R. Quisumbing

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

Date Written: October 30, 2019

Abstract

Women’s participation and empowerment in value chains are goals that concern many development organizations, but there has been limited systematic, rigorous research to track these goals between and within value chains (VCs). We use the survey-based project-level Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (pro-WEAI) to measure women’s and men’s empowerment in the abaca, coconut, seaweed, and swine VCs in the Philippines. Results show that most women and men in all four VCs are disempowered, but unlike in many other countries, Filipino women in this sample are generally as empowered as men. Pro-WEAI results suggest that respect within the household and attitudes about gender-based violence (GBV) are the largest sources of disempowerment for both women and men, followed by control over use of income and autonomy in income-related decisions. Excessive workload and lack of group membership are other important sources of disempowerment, with some variation across VCs and nodes along VCs. Across all four VCs, access to community programs is associated with higher women’s empowerment, and access to extension services and education are associated with higher men’s empowerment. Our results show that, despite the egalitarian gender norms in the Philippines, persistent gender stereotypes influence men’s and women’s empowerment and VC participation.

Keywords: empowerment; agriculture; supply chain; women's participation; gender; livelihoods

Suggested Citation

Malapit, Hazel Jean and Ragasa, Catherine and Martinez, Elena M. and Rubin, Deborah and Seymour, Greg and Quisumbing, Agnes R., Empowerment in Agricultural Value Chains: Mixed Methods Evidence from the Philippines (October 30, 2019). IFPRI Discussion Paper 1881. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3479225

Hazel Jean Malapit (Contact Author)

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) ( email )

1201 Eye St, NW,
Washington, DC 20005
United States

Catherine Ragasa

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) ( email )

1201 Eye St, NW,
Washington, DC 20005
United States

Elena M. Martinez

CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH) ( email )

1201 Eye St, NW,
Washington, DC 20005
United States

Deborah Rubin

Cultural Practice, LLC ( email )

4300 Montgomery Avenue, Suite 305
Bethesda, MD 20814-4444
United States

HOME PAGE: http://www.culturalpractice.com

Greg Seymour

CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets ( email )

United States

Agnes R. Quisumbing

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) ( email )

1201 Eye St, NW,
Washington, DC 20005
United States

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