External Knowledge and Technology Transfer, Transfer, Partnership and Diffusion of Innovation
4 Pages Posted: 14 Nov 2019
Date Written: November 5, 2019
Technology transfer means technology transfer towards the application of knowledge. For developing countries, international knowledge and technology transfer is a key channel for economic growth, a key advantage for outbound countries.
Technology transfer is divided into commercial and non-commercial. Financial gain is the main purpose of commercial technology transfer. The objects of commercial technology transfer are: industrial property (patents for inventions, patent licenses, know-how, trademarks, industrial designs, design certificates and utility models), except for trademarks, service marks and commercial names, unless they form a significant part of technology transfer transactions; know-how and technical experience in the form of feasibility studies, models, designs, instructions, drawings, specifications, technological equipment and the university.
The objects of non-commercial technology transfer are: scientific-technical and educational literature, reference books, reviews, standards, patent descriptions, catalogues, brochures, etc. international conferences, seminars, round tables, expert councils, working groups, congresses, meetings, symposiums, exhibitions, venture fairs, contests, shows; training and internship of scientists and specialists on a gratuitous basis or on special conditions of parity reimbursement of expenses by the parties.
Necessary and sufficient conditions. As the current international practice has shown, even having spent considerable funds on R&D, the country is not immune from failure in innovative development. For example, the United Kingdom has had some recognized success in creating innovative technologies. For example, an EMI CT scanner.
Keywords: transfer, diffusion of innovation, knowledge spillover, models, Kazakhstan, economic growth
JEL Classification: COO
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation