Brazilian Trade Policy in Historical Perspective: Constant Features, Erratic Behavior

Revista Brasileira de Direito Internacional – Brazilian Journal of International Law (vol. 10, n. 1, 2013, número especial: Direito Internacional Econômico; p. 11-26; doi:10.5102/rdi.v10i1.2393

25 Pages Posted: 19 Nov 2019

See all articles by Paulo Roberto de Almeida

Paulo Roberto de Almeida

Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Relations; Centro Universitário de Brasília (UniCEUB)

Date Written: May 14, 2013

Abstract

Historical essay on Brazilian trade policies since the 19th century, seen in connection with industrial and development policies that were implemented not always in a coordinated manner. Brazil was, and probably continues to be, one of the most protectionist countries in the world, at the beginning for fiscal reasons (financing of the State), then, in the 20th century, on behalf of deliberate industrializing and import substitution goals. The essay surveys the many policies followed in different phases of Brazilian economic history, including the regional integration process of Mercosur and the multilateral and hemispheric trade negotiations; it also discusses the recent re-commoditization of its foreign trade and the retrocession to a series of patently defensive policies, justified by a lack of competitiveness of its industries, by the way due to the excessive taxation and the bureaucratic entanglements set up by the very State that seeks to protect those industries from foreign competition.

Outline:

Introduction: basic characteristics

Historical development of Brazilian trade policies

Reform and adjustment to the multilateral trade system

Regional integration process and the Mercosur path

Real challenges and lost opportunities: Brazilian illusions and deceptions

What went wrong? Brazil retrocedes into protectionism

What lies ahead: a fortress Brazil or an opening to globalization?

Keywords: Trade policy; Brazilian economic policy; industrialization; development; economic history

JEL Classification: N, O

Suggested Citation

Almeida, Paulo Roberto de, Brazilian Trade Policy in Historical Perspective: Constant Features, Erratic Behavior (May 14, 2013). Revista Brasileira de Direito Internacional – Brazilian Journal of International Law (vol. 10, n. 1, 2013, número especial: Direito Internacional Econômico; p. 11-26; doi:10.5102/rdi.v10i1.2393, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3483346 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3483346

Paulo Roberto de Almeida (Contact Author)

Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Relations ( email )

SEPN 707/909 - Campus UniCEUB
Asa Norte
Brasilia, DF 70790-075
Brazil
(55.61) 2030-6620 (Phone)

HOME PAGE: http://www.pralmeida.org

Centro Universitário de Brasília (UniCEUB) ( email )

SEPN 707/909 - Campus UniCEUB
Asa Norte
Brasilia, DF 70790-075
Brazil
(55.61) 2030-6620 (Phone)

HOME PAGE: http://www.pralmeida.org

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