KVA as a Transfer of Wealth

Risk, December 2020

11 Pages Posted: 21 Nov 2019 Last revised: 1 Mar 2021

Date Written: November 20, 2020


In this article we derive the shareholder loss due to a capital requirement associated to a derivatives transaction. This is a result of a transfer of wealth between shareholders and creditors of the firm. The charge required to negate this loss can be regarded as a capital valuation adjustment which we refer to as KVA2. Our approach does not assume a fixed hurdle rate on equity required by shareholders. Instead we derive the economic return on capital for a marginal derivatives trade. We provide two complementary derivations of the valuation adjustment. The first is based on a Merton single-period balance sheet model and the second on continuous time no-arbitrage arguments.

Our resulting KVA expression is similar in structure to those proposed in the literature. We find however that the effective rate on capital that a shareholder should demand in a derivatives transaction is a junior funding rate as opposed to the return on equity. This is a consequence of the fact that the only risk a shareholder faces once a derivatives transaction is fully hedged is the default of the firm itself.

Keywords: KVA, Valuation Adjustment, Derivatives Pricing

JEL Classification: G13

Suggested Citation

Arnsdorf, Matthias, KVA as a Transfer of Wealth (November 20, 2020). Risk, December 2020, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3484997 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3484997

Matthias Arnsdorf (Contact Author)

JP Morgan ( email )

United Kingdom

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