Immigrant Examination Behavior

43 Pages Posted: 18 Nov 2019

See all articles by Gil S. Epstein

Gil S. Epstein

Bar-Ilan University - Department of Economics; IZA Institute of Labor Economics; University College London - CReAM - Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration

Shahar Sansani

College of Management (Israel)

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In this paper, we estimate differences in examination behavior between immigrants and natives, by examining differences in the propensity to forego a passing grade on a final exam in order to retake that final exam. Retaking a final exam involves some level of uncertainty, so differences in examination behavior may be due to differences in motivation, risk-taking, and discipline. We find that immigrants are about 2 percentage points more likely to retake a passed exam than natives. This represents a large difference given a baseline retake rate of about 6.5 percentage points.

Keywords: immigrant-native differences, examination behavior, uncertainty, motivation

JEL Classification: J15, I23, D81

Suggested Citation

Epstein, Gil S. and Sansani, Shahar, Immigrant Examination Behavior. IZA Discussion Paper No. 12758. Available at SSRN:

Gil S. Epstein (Contact Author)

Bar-Ilan University - Department of Economics ( email )

Ramat-Gan, 52900
+972 3 531 8937 (Phone)
+972 3 535 3180 (Fax)


IZA Institute of Labor Economics ( email )

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072

University College London - CReAM - Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration ( email )

Drayton House
30 Gordon Street
London, WC1H 0AX
United Kingdom

Shahar Sansani

College of Management (Israel) ( email )

7 Yitzhak Rabin Boulevard
P. O. Box 9141
Rishon LeZion, 75190

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