Tax Avoidance and Earning Management in Pakistan

34 Pages Posted: 10 Dec 2019

Date Written: November 21, 2019


Tax avoidance and evasion are major problems in Pakistan. The study attempts to provide information to investors and regulatory authorities of Pakistan about tax avoidance and its consequences. Book Effective Tax Rate (BETR) and Cash Effective Tax Rate (CETR) are used to measure tax avoidance. The unbalanced panel data of 189 non-financial firms are used for empirical analysis. The results of panel regression models show that managers manipulate the profitability signal via tax avoidance. Managers use tax avoidance to beat earnings targets, however, no evidence found to practice tax avoidance to just meet the profitability margin. In line with the behavioral finance view, the quick response of the stock market is positive to tax avoidance because investors focus on profitability without detail screening of cash flows. However, tax avoider firms are likely to have lower future profitability and future stock returns than other benchmark firms.

Keywords: Tax avoidance, Tax evasion, Profitability, Stock returns, Earning management

JEL Classification: H26, G32, G38

Suggested Citation

Oad Rajput, Suresh Kumar and Marwat, Jahanzeb, Tax Avoidance and Earning Management in Pakistan (November 21, 2019). Available at SSRN: or

Suresh Kumar Oad Rajput (Contact Author)

Sukkur IBA University ( email )

00923363322855 (Phone)
65200 (Fax)

Jahanzeb Marwat

Sukkur IBA University ( email )


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