Coalition of the Unwilling? Chinese and Russian Perspectives on Cyberspace

Broeders, D., L. Adamson and R. Creemers. (2019). Coalition of the unwilling? Chinese and Russian perspectives on cyberspace. The Hague Program For Cyber Norms Policy Brief. November 2019.

20 Pages Posted: 13 Dec 2019

See all articles by Dennis Broeders

Dennis Broeders

Institute for Security and Global Affairs, Leiden University

Liisi Adamson

Leiden University

Rogier Creemers

Leiden University - Leiden Institute for Area Studies

Date Written: October 1, 2019

Abstract

China and Russia have distinct views on the global order and the role of cyber therein, expressed in a conceptual vocabulary that has received little scholarly attention. This vocabulary is also used to frame their concerns and fears about cyber-borne threats. The approaches and policies of Russia and China are often married together under the heading of “the Sino-Russian approach”. This rings true not only in cybersecurity and -defence related discourse, but in West vs. East geopolitics in general. The Sino-Russian approach is often contrasted to the Western or “likeminded” approach, which represents the liberal world order. At the same time, little attention has been paid to the question, how united this Sino-Russian front is. Is it “us against the world”? Is the Sino-Russian approach “likeminded” in its grouping? Or are there discrepancies in this united front? Having a one-dimensional view of the Chinese-Russian relationship and omitting the different motives and goals of both actors undermine the intricacies and possibilities that a deeper understanding of the cyberspace-related policies of both countries might bring to western analysts and policy makers. In order to explore aspects of the Sino-Russian relationship in cyberspace, The Hague Program for Cyber Norms and the Leiden Asia Centre convened a dozen experts for a workshop in The Hague in May 2019. The experts were all from Europe and North America focusing on China or Russia – sometimes both – and most of them focused on aspects of foreign policy and/or cyberspace. The workshop was held under Chatham House rule.

Keywords: cyber; cyber security, China, Russia, diplomacy, international relations, international law, cyber norms, geopolitics, alliances

Suggested Citation

Broeders, Dennis and Adamson, Liisi and Creemers, Rogier, Coalition of the Unwilling? Chinese and Russian Perspectives on Cyberspace (October 1, 2019). Broeders, D., L. Adamson and R. Creemers. (2019). Coalition of the unwilling? Chinese and Russian perspectives on cyberspace. The Hague Program For Cyber Norms Policy Brief. November 2019., Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3493600

Dennis Broeders (Contact Author)

Institute for Security and Global Affairs, Leiden University ( email )

Turfmarkt 99
The Hague, Zuid Holland 2511 DP
Netherlands

Liisi Adamson

Leiden University

Postbus 9500
Leiden, Zuid Holland 2300 RA
Netherlands

Rogier Creemers

Leiden University - Leiden Institute for Area Studies ( email )

Matthias de Vrieshof 3
Room 10
Leiden, 2311
Netherlands

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