Patent Networks, Collaboration Patterns, and National Innovation Systems. Sweden and Spain during the Second Industrial Revolution
UAM Working Papers in Economic History, nº 02/2017, ISSN: 1885-6888
27 Pages Posted: 12 Dec 2019 Last revised: 28 Jun 2021
Date Written: 2017
Sweden and Spain have developed very distinct systems of innovation over the long term. The former has a highly innovative economy while the latter drags serious problems in science and technology. However, during the first half of the nineteenth century both countries were latecomers to the industrial revolution in the European periphery with similar economic, technological, and institutional challenges ahead. In this paper, we hypothesize that one possible reason for this long-term divergence lies in the different collaboration patterns that emerge from interactions among innovative agents. To analyse such cooperation patterns we apply social network analysis methods and study co-patent networks in Sweden and Spain during the second industrial revolution (1878-1914). The results demonstrate that collaboration among innovators and openness to foreign influence was greater in Sweden than in Spain. This research opens new paths for further studies both on economic history and innovation networks dynamics.
Keywords: Collaboration, Innovation Networks, Patents, Social Network Analysis, Sweden, Spain, Second Industrial Revolution
JEL Classification: N01, N73, O30, O33, Z13
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