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Components of a Neanderthal Gut Microbiome Recovered from Fecal Sediments from El Salt

67 Pages Posted: 6 Dec 2019 Publication Status: Review Complete

See all articles by Simone Rampelli

Simone Rampelli

University of Bologna - Unit of Microbial Ecology of Health

Silvia Turroni

University of Bologna - Unit of Microbial Ecology of Health

Carolina Mallol

University of La Laguna - Department of Geography and History

Cristo Hernandez

University of La Laguna - Department of Geography and History

Bertila Galvan

University of La Laguna - Department of Geography and History

Ainara Sistiaga

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences

Elena Biagi

University of Bologna - Unit of Microbial Ecology of Health

Annalisa Astolfi

University of Bologna - "Giorgio Prodi" Cancer Research Center

Patrizia Brigidi

University of Bologna - Unit of Microbial Ecology of Health

Stefano Benazzi

University of Bologna - Department of Cultural Heritage

Cecil M. Lewis

University of Oklahoma - Laboratory of Molecular Anthropology

Christina Warinner

University of Oklahoma - Department of Anthropology

Courtney A. Hofman

University of Oklahoma - Laboratory of Molecular Anthropology

Stephanie L. Schnorr

Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research

Marco Candela

University of Bologna - Unit of Microbial Ecology of Health

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Abstract

A comprehensive view of our evolutionary history cannot ignore the ancestral features of our gut microbiota. To provide some glimpse into the past, we searched for human gut microbiome components in ancient DNA from 14 archeological sediments spanning four stratigraphic units of El Salt Middle Paleolithic site (Spain), including layers of unit X, which has yielded well-preserved Neanderthal occupation deposits dating around 50 kya. According to our findings, bacterial species belonging to families known to be part of the modern human gut microbiome are abundantly represented across unit X samples, showing that well-known probiotic gut components such as Blautia, Dorea, Roseburia, Ruminococcus, Faecalibacterium and Bifidobacterium already populated the intestinal microbiome of Homo since as far back as the last common ancestor between humans and Neanderthals.

Keywords: human gut microbiome, ancient DNA, microbiome-host coevolution, health-promoting microbes

Suggested Citation

Rampelli, Simone and Turroni, Silvia and Mallol, Carolina and Hernandez, Cristo and Galvan, Bertila and Sistiaga, Ainara and Biagi, Elena and Astolfi, Annalisa and Brigidi, Patrizia and Benazzi, Stefano and Lewis, Cecil M. and Warinner, Christina and Hofman, Courtney A. and Schnorr, Stephanie L. and Candela, Marco, Components of a Neanderthal Gut Microbiome Recovered from Fecal Sediments from El Salt. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3497736 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3497736
This version of the paper has not been formally peer reviewed.

Simone Rampelli

University of Bologna - Unit of Microbial Ecology of Health ( email )

Italy

Silvia Turroni

University of Bologna - Unit of Microbial Ecology of Health

Italy

Carolina Mallol

University of La Laguna - Department of Geography and History

Spain

Cristo Hernandez

University of La Laguna - Department of Geography and History

Spain

Bertila Galvan

University of La Laguna - Department of Geography and History

Spain

Ainara Sistiaga

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences

Cambridge, MA
United States

Elena Biagi

University of Bologna - Unit of Microbial Ecology of Health

Italy

Annalisa Astolfi

University of Bologna - "Giorgio Prodi" Cancer Research Center

Spain

Patrizia Brigidi

University of Bologna - Unit of Microbial Ecology of Health

Italy

Stefano Benazzi

University of Bologna - Department of Cultural Heritage

Spain

Cecil M. Lewis

University of Oklahoma - Laboratory of Molecular Anthropology

United States

Christina Warinner

University of Oklahoma - Department of Anthropology

Norman, OK 73019
United States

Courtney A. Hofman

University of Oklahoma - Laboratory of Molecular Anthropology

United States

Stephanie L. Schnorr

Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research

Austria

Marco Candela (Contact Author)

University of Bologna - Unit of Microbial Ecology of Health ( email )

Italy

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