Title IX and Menstruation

56 Pages Posted: 1 Jan 2020 Last revised: 10 Sep 2020

See all articles by Margaret E. Johnson

Margaret E. Johnson

University of Baltimore - School of Law

Emily Gold Waldman

Pace University - School of Law

Bridget J. Crawford

Pace University School of Law

Date Written: February 15, 2020


“Oh no. Could I borrow a tampon or pad?” These (or similar) words are familiar to almost everyone who has ever had a period. Even for adults, menstruation can at times be a challenge. For some schoolchildren, it can be an insurmountable obstacle to receiving an education. Students are subject to constant observation by classmates and teachers; they may not have autonomous access to a bathroom during the school day; or they may not be able to afford menstrual products. They may experience menstruation-related peer harassment, restrictive school policies, a lack of access to menstrual products, and inadequate menstruation-related education. As a result, a menstruating student may find it difficult to concentrate in school or even attend school at all, depending on the circumstances. This Article explores the intersection of menstruation and education to uncover the related impediments students face. Because menstruation is uniquely associated with female biology, a school’s failure to address the needs of menstruating students amounts to a denial of educational opportunities on the basis of sex under Title IX.

In recent years, students themselves have played notable roles in successful efforts to cause schools to provide free pads or tampons to students. Currently most states do not require schools to do so. Even in states where schools have a legal obligation to provide menstrual products to students, availability is only one part of a larger problem. Unless students can access bathroom facilities in response to their biological needs, and do so without shame, stigma or restriction, students may risk bleeding during class, failing to change tampons or pads as medically recommended, or even leaving (or skipping) school. This Article argues that pursuant to Title IX, schools should provide students with an education free of unnecessary anxiety about the biological process of menstruation. This freedom from anxiety is a necessary precondition for having meaningful opportunities to fully participate in school and all aspects of public life. In its final section, the Article buttresses its analysis by employing multiple theoretical frameworks to examine the intersection of menstruation and education, concluding that menstruation is a foundational issue that the law must take into account so that society can benefit from the full participation of all of its members.

Keywords: Title IX, menstruation, schools, education, discimination, harassment

JEL Classification: K1, K32, K36, K39

Suggested Citation

Johnson, Margaret E. and Waldman, Emily Gold and Crawford, Bridget J., Title IX and Menstruation (February 15, 2020). 43 Harvard Journal of Law and Gender 225 (2020), Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3502638

Margaret E. Johnson (Contact Author)

University of Baltimore - School of Law ( email )

1420 N. Charles Street
Baltimore, MD 21218
United States

Emily Gold Waldman

Pace University - School of Law ( email )

78 North Broadway
White Plains, NY 10603
United States

Bridget J. Crawford

Pace University School of Law ( email )

78 North Broadway
White Plains, NY 10603
United States

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