Corporate Governance in Extreme Institutional Environment: Evidence From Emerging Economy
Corporate Ownership & Control / Volume 17, Issue 1, Autumn 2019 (Special Issue)
25 Pages Posted: 23 Dec 2019
Date Written: 2019
Corporate governance (CG) is often split among rule and principlebased methods to regulation in distinctive institutional contexts. Relying on an alternative theoretical framework (i.e. institutional theory), rather than the dominant agency theory, this study conceptualizes corporate governance practices and structures as institutionally resolute and directed and explores the key institutional determinants of good CG practices in an emerging economy. Drawing on qualitative and quantitative methods, this study conducted semistructured interviews from eight CG professionals, followed by a survey questionnaire (N=105) from PSX listed firms. The study explores the extent to which certain underlying formal and informal institutional determinants, such as the auditing, political, legal, board, shareholders awareness, voting, culture, and values play a determining role in corporate governance. Using exploratory factor analysis, this study identified five major barriers, i.e. firm-level barriers, external barriers, social barriers, education and training barriers and legal barriers which restrain good CG practices in Pakistan. In addition, this study identified four major drivers, i.e. internal drivers, regulatory drivers, motivational drivers and collaborative drivers which can promote good CG practices in Pakistan. The findings of multiple hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the CGI score has a significant positive relationship with both return on assets and return on equity. This study emphasizes the necessity to revisit the foundation of institutional and agency theories in the environment of developing countries.
Keywords: Institutional, Determinants, Corporate Governance, Formal and Informal, Agency Theory, Barriers, Drivers, CG Compliance
JEL Classification: G00, G3, G30, G32, G34
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