Enhancers Predominantly Regulate Gene Expression in vivo Via Transcription Initiation
49 Pages Posted: 3 Jan 2020 Sneak Peek Status: Under ReviewMore...
Gene transcription occurs via a cycle of linked events including initiation, promoter proximal pausing and elongation of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). A key question is how do transcriptional enhancers influence these events to control gene expression? Here we have used a new approach to quantify transcriptional initiation and pausing in vivo, while simultaneously identifying transcription start sites (TSSs) and pause-sites (TPSs) from single RNA molecules. When analyzed in parallel with nascent RNA-seq, these data show that differential gene expression is achieved predominantly via changes in transcription initiation rather than Pol II pausing. Using genetically engineered mouse models deleted for specific enhancers we show that these elements control gene expression via Pol II recruitment and/or initiation rather than via promoter proximal pause release. Together, our data show that enhancers, in general, control gene expression predominantly by Pol II recruitment and initiation rather than via pausing.
Keywords: Pol II, transcription initiation, pausing, transcription, enhancer, Gene expression, nascent RNA, TSS, Premature termination, pause release, Pol II pausing, promoter proximal
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