Structural Change and Environmental Kuznets Curves

28 Pages Posted: 18 Nov 2002

See all articles by Jens Horbach

Jens Horbach

University of Applied Sciences Anhalt

Date Written: November 2002


The Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis (EKC) postulates an inverted u-shaped curve between important pollutants and per capita GDP analogous to the relationship between income inequality and income per capita which has been analysed by Kuznets in 1955. The article focuses on an empirical analysis of structural change between branches as one major determinant of EKC's. The results of a cointegration analysis show that amongst other determinants the decline of environmental intensive branches in Germany during the last decades can be econometrically explained by the development of energy prices and the so-called Fourastie hypothesis.

Keywords: Structural Change, Environment, Environmental Policy

JEL Classification: O13, Q20, C22

Suggested Citation

Horbach, Jens, Structural Change and Environmental Kuznets Curves (November 2002). Available at SSRN: or

Jens Horbach (Contact Author)

University of Applied Sciences Anhalt ( email )

Pfarrsteig 4
Lichtenfels 96215

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