Examining the Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal on Takeover Performance in Conditionally Automated Driving

28 Pages Posted: 5 Feb 2020

See all articles by Na Du

Na Du

University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, College of Engineering, Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering, Students

Feng Zhou

University of Michigan at Dearborn

Elizabeth Pulver

State Farm Insurance Company

Dawn Tilbury

University of Michigan at Ann Arbor - Department of Mechanical Engineering

Lionel Robert

University of Michigan at Ann Arbor - School of Information

Anuj Pradhan

University of Massachusetts Amherst

Jessie Yang

University of Michigan at Ann Arbor

Date Written: January 12, 2020

Abstract

In conditionally automated driving, drivers have difficulty in takeover transitions as they become increasingly decoupled from the operational level of driving. Factors influencing takeover performance, such as takeover lead time and the engagement of non-driving related tasks, have been studied in the past. However, despite the important role emotions play in human-machine interaction and in manual driving, little is known about how emotions influence drivers’ takeover performance. This study, therefore, examined the effects of emotional valence and arousal on drivers’ takeover timeliness and quality in conditionally automated driving. We conducted a driving simulation experiment with 32 participants. Movie clips were played for emotion induction. Participants with different levels of emotional valence and arousal were required to take over control from automated driving, and their takeover time and quality were analyzed. Results indicate that positive valence led to better takeover quality in the form of a smaller maximum resulting acceleration and a smaller maximum resulting jerk. However, high arousal did not yield an advantage in takeover time. This study contributes to the literature by demonstrating how emotional valence and arousal affect takeover performance. The benefits of positive emotions carry over from manual driving to conditionally automated driving while the benefits of arousal do not.

Keywords: automated driving, self-driving cars, takeover requests, takeover transition, SAE level 3, autonomous driving, human-automation interaction, human-robot interaction, conditional automation, emotions, takeover performance, automobiles, automotive technologies, advanced driving systems

JEL Classification: O3, R4

Suggested Citation

Du, Na and Zhou, Feng and Pulver, Elizabeth and Tilbury, Dawn and Robert, Lionel and Pradhan, Anuj and Yang, Jessie, Examining the Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal on Takeover Performance in Conditionally Automated Driving (January 12, 2020). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3518015 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3518015

Na Du

University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, College of Engineering, Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering, Students ( email )

1205 Beal Avenue
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
United States

Feng Zhou

University of Michigan at Dearborn ( email )

4901 Evergreen Road
Dearborn, MI 48128-1491
United States

Elizabeth Pulver

State Farm Insurance Company ( email )

One State Plaza
Bloomington, IL 61710
United States

Dawn Tilbury

University of Michigan at Ann Arbor - Department of Mechanical Engineering ( email )

United States

Lionel Robert (Contact Author)

University of Michigan at Ann Arbor - School of Information ( email )

4388 North Quad
105 South State Street
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1092
United States

HOME PAGE: http://https://www.si.umich.edu/people/lionel-robert

Anuj Pradhan

University of Massachusetts Amherst ( email )

Department of Operations and Information Managemen
Amherst, MA 01003
United States

Jessie Yang

University of Michigan at Ann Arbor

500 S. State Street
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
United States

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