Examining the Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal on Takeover Performance in Conditionally Automated Driving
28 Pages Posted: 5 Feb 2020
Date Written: January 12, 2020
In conditionally automated driving, drivers have difficulty in takeover transitions as they become increasingly decoupled from the operational level of driving. Factors influencing takeover performance, such as takeover lead time and the engagement of non-driving related tasks, have been studied in the past. However, despite the important role emotions play in human-machine interaction and in manual driving, little is known about how emotions influence drivers’ takeover performance. This study, therefore, examined the effects of emotional valence and arousal on drivers’ takeover timeliness and quality in conditionally automated driving. We conducted a driving simulation experiment with 32 participants. Movie clips were played for emotion induction. Participants with different levels of emotional valence and arousal were required to take over control from automated driving, and their takeover time and quality were analyzed. Results indicate that positive valence led to better takeover quality in the form of a smaller maximum resulting acceleration and a smaller maximum resulting jerk. However, high arousal did not yield an advantage in takeover time. This study contributes to the literature by demonstrating how emotional valence and arousal affect takeover performance. The benefits of positive emotions carry over from manual driving to conditionally automated driving while the benefits of arousal do not.
Keywords: automated driving, self-driving cars, takeover requests, takeover transition, SAE level 3, autonomous driving, human-automation interaction, human-robot interaction, conditional automation, emotions, takeover performance, automobiles, automotive technologies, advanced driving systems
JEL Classification: O3, R4
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation