Depression's Unholy Trinity: Dysregulated Stress, Immunity, and the Microbiome

Posted: 16 Jan 2020

See all articles by Joana S. Cruz-Pereira

Joana S. Cruz-Pereira

University College Cork

Kieran Rea

University College Cork

Yvonne M. Nolan

University College Cork

Olivia F. O'Leary

University College Cork

Timothy G. Dinan

University College Cork

John Cryan

University College Cork - Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience

Date Written: January 2020

Abstract

Depression remains one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, with many patients not responding adequately to available treatments. Chronic or early-life stress is one of the key risk factors for depression. In addition, a growing body of data implicates chronic inflammation as a major player in depression pathogenesis. More recently, the gut microbiota has emerged as an important regulator of brain and behavior and also has been linked to depression. However, how this holy trinity of risk factors interact to maintain physiological homeostasis in the brain and body is not fully understood. In this review, we integrate the available data from animal and human studies on these three factors in the etiology and progression of depression. We also focus on the processes by which this microbiota-immune-stress matrix may influence centrally mediated events and on possible therapeutic interventions to correct imbalances in this triune.

Suggested Citation

Cruz-Pereira, Joana S. and Rea, Kieran and Nolan, Yvonne M. and O'Leary, Olivia F. and Dinan, Timothy G. and Cryan, John, Depression's Unholy Trinity: Dysregulated Stress, Immunity, and the Microbiome (January 2020). Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 71, pp. 49-78, 2020, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3520467 or http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-122216-011613

Joana S. Cruz-Pereira (Contact Author)

University College Cork ( email )

5 Bloomfield Terrace Western Road
Cork
Ireland

Kieran Rea

University College Cork ( email )

5 Bloomfield Terrace Western Road
Cork
Ireland

Yvonne M. Nolan

University College Cork ( email )

5 Bloomfield Terrace Western Road
Cork
Ireland

Olivia F. O'Leary

University College Cork ( email )

5 Bloomfield Terrace Western Road
Cork
Ireland

Timothy G. Dinan

University College Cork

5 Bloomfield Terrace Western Road
Cork
Ireland

John Cryan

University College Cork - Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience

Room 2.33, 2nd Floor
Western Gateway Building
Cork
Ireland

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