Using Technology to ‘Co-Create’ EU Policies

European Parliamentary Research Service, 2020

9 Pages Posted: 19 Mar 2020

See all articles by Gianluca Sgueo

Gianluca Sgueo

Center for Social Studies - University of Coimbra; European Parliamentary Research Service; New York University

Date Written: January 17, 2020


What will European Union (EU) decision-making look like in the next decade and beyond? Is technological progress promoting more transparent, inclusive and participatory decision-making at EU level?

Technology has dramatically changed both the number and quality of connections between citizens and public administrations. With technological progress, citizens have gained improved access to public authorities through new digital communication channels. Innovative, tech-based, approaches to policy-making have become the subject of a growing debate between academics and politicians. Theoretical approaches such as ‘CrowdLaw’, ‘Policy-Making 3.0’, ‘liquid’, ‘do-it- yourself’ or ‘technical’ democracy and ‘democratic innovations’ share the positive outlook towards technology; and technology is seen as the medium through which policies can be ‘co-created’ by decision-makers and stakeholders. Co-creation is mutually beneficial. Decision-makers gain legitimacy by incorporating the skills, knowledge and expertise of citizens, who in turn have the opportunity to shape new policies according to their needs and expectations.

EU institutions are at the forefront of experimentation with technologically innovative approaches to make decision-making more transparent and accessible to stakeholders. Efforts in modernising EU participatory channels through technology have evolved over time: from redressing criticism on democratic deficits, through fostering digital interactions with stakeholders, up to current attempts at designing policy-making in a friendly and participative manner.

While technological innovation holds the promise of making EU policy-making even more participatory, it is not without challenges. To begin with, technology is resource consuming. There are legal challenges associated with both over- and under-regulation of the use of technology in policy-making. Furthermore, technological innovation raises ethical concerns. It may increase inequality, for instance, or infringe personal privacy.

Keywords: democracy, european union, EU, europe, digital, technology, collective intelligence, politics, policy-making, civic engagement, transparency, government, governance, supranational

Suggested Citation

Sgueo, Gianluca and Sgueo, Gianluca, Using Technology to ‘Co-Create’ EU Policies (January 17, 2020). European Parliamentary Research Service, 2020, Available at SSRN:

Gianluca Sgueo (Contact Author)

Center for Social Studies - University of Coimbra ( email )

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