Perinatal Depression of Women Along with 2019 Novel Coronavirus Breakout in China

30 Pages Posted: 18 Feb 2020

See all articles by Yan-Ting Wu

Yan-Ting Wu

Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) - International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital; Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) - Institute of Embryo-Fetal Original Adult Disease

Chen Zhang

Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) - International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital

Han Liu

Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) - International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital

Chen-Chi Duan

International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital

Cheng Li

Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) - International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital

Jian-Xia Fan

Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) - International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital

Hong Li

Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) - International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital

Lei Chen

Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) - International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital

Hua-Lin Xu

Shaoxing Maternity & Child Health Hospital

Xiang-Juan Li

Hangzhou Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital

Yi Guo

Dalian Maternity and Child Health Hospital

Ye-Ping Wang

Government of the People's Republic of China - Wenzhou People's Hospital

Xiu-Feng Li

Jiashan Maternity and Child Health Hospital

Jing Li

Fuzhou Maternity and Child Health Hospital of Jiangxi Province

Ying Wang

Maternity and Child Health Hospital of Songjiang District

Yi-Ping You

Maternity and Child Health Hospital of Hunan Province

Hong-Mei Li

Affiliated Hospital of Yanan University

Shuang-Qi Yang

Enze Women’s and Children’s Hospital

Xiao-Ling Tao

Taizhou Hospital of Zhejiang Province

Ya-Juan Xu

Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University

Hai-Hong Lao

Hainan Women and Children's Medical Center

Ming Wen

First People‘s Hospital of Wuhu

Yan Zhou

People's Hospital of Changshan

Jun-Ying Wang

Shengzhou Maternity and Child Health Hospital

Yu-Hua Chen

Wenchang Maternity and Child Health Hospital

Di-Yun Meng

Huzhou Maternity and Child Health Hospital

Jing-Li Zhai

Karamay Central Hospital of XinJiang

You-Chun Ye

People’s Hospital of Yinzhou District

Qin-Wen Zhong

Fuyang Maternity and Child Health Hospital

Xiu-Ping Yang

Enze Women’s and Children’s Hospital

Dan Zhang

Zhejiang University - Key Laboratory of Reproductive Genetics (Ministry of Education); Zhejiang University - Department of Reproductive Endocrinology

Jing Zhang

Ningbo Affiliated Hospital of Ningbo University School of Medicine

Xifeng Wu

Zhejiang University - School of Medicine

Wei Chen

Zhejiang University - School of Medicine

He-Feng Huang

Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) - International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital; Zhejiang University - Key Laboratory of Reproductive Genetics (Ministry of Education); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Embryo Original Diseases; Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) - Institute of Embryo-Fetal Original Adult Disease; Zhejiang University - Key Laboratory of Reproductive Genetics (Ministry of Education)

Date Written: February 17, 2020

Abstract

Background
On 20th Jan 2020, a new coronavirus epidemic with “human-to-human” transmission was officially announced, which inevitably caused public panic in China. Perinatal depression (PND) is one of the most common mental health problems. The purpose of this study is to explore the mental impact of COVID-19 outbreak on pregnant women.

Methods
A total of 4124 pregnant women during third trimester from 25 hospitals in 10 provinces were recruited in this cross-sectional study, from Jan/01 to Feb/09, 2020. Among them, 1285 pregnant women were assessed after Jan/20, and 2839 were assessed before that time point. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to evaluate the maternal psychological situation. Prevalence of PND and anxiety were compared between two groups.

Findings
Pregnant women had higher scores in EPDS (7.7 vs 7.4, P=0.03) and anxiety subscale (3.4 vs 3.2, P=0.04), especially the highest score for thoughts of self-harm (P=0.005) after the declaration of COVID-19 epidemic. Awareness of COVID-19 significantly increased the prevalence of PND (26.0% vs 29.6%, P=0.02). The COVID-19 number of newly- confirmed, suspected infections, and death cases per day was positively associated with the prevalence of PND (P=0.003, 0.004, and 0.001, respectively). Pregnant women those who were underweight, full-time employed, middle income, age < 35 yrs, primiparous, less exercise, appropriate living area appeared to be more susceptible to the outbreak.

Interpretation
COVID-19 outbreak can increase the depressive risk of pregnant women, especially in the self-harm inclination, suggesting that psychological intervention is an urgent need for maternal population.

Funding: The study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81661128010, 81671412), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFC1001300, 2018YFC1002804, 2016YFC1000203), Foundation of Shanghai Municipal Commission of Health and Family Planning (20144Y0110), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Research Unit, Shanghai Jiao Tong University(2019RU056), CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (2019-I2M-5-064) and Shanghai Municipal Key Clinical Specialty, Shanghai, China.

Conflict of interest: The authors have declared that no conflict of interest exists.

Ethical Approval: This study was registered in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR1900027020) and the ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital (GKLW2019-11). Informed consent was obtained from all participants before inclusion.

Keywords: COVID-19, perinatal depression, outbreak

JEL Classification: I1

Suggested Citation

Wu, Yan-Ting and Zhang, Chen and Liu, Han and Duan, Chen-Chi and Li, Cheng and Fan, Jian-Xia and Li, Hong and Chen, Lei and Xu, Hua-Lin and Li, Xiang-Juan and Guo, Yi and Wang, Ye-Ping and Li, Xiu-Feng and Li, Jing and Wang, Ying and You, Yi-Ping and Li, Hong-Mei and Yang, Shuang-Qi and Tao, Xiao-Ling and Xu, Ya-Juan and Lao, Hai-Hong and Wen, Ming and Zhou, Yan and Wang, Jun-Ying and Chen, Yu-Hua and Meng, Di-Yun and Zhai, Jing-Li and Ye, You-Chun and Zhong, Qin-Wen and Yang, Xiu-Ping and Zhang, Dan and Zhang, Jing and Wu, Xifeng and Chen, Wei and Huang, He-Feng and Huang, He-Feng, Perinatal Depression of Women Along with 2019 Novel Coronavirus Breakout in China (February 17, 2020). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3539359 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3539359

Yan-Ting Wu

Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) - International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital ( email )

1961 Huashan Rd
Shanghai Shi, 200030
China

Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) - Institute of Embryo-Fetal Original Adult Disease ( email )

China

Chen Zhang

Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) - International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital ( email )

1961 Huashan Rd
Shanghai Shi, 200030
China

Han Liu

Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) - International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital ( email )

1961 Huashan Rd
Shanghai Shi, 200030
China

Chen-Chi Duan

International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital ( email )

KoGuan Law School
Shanghai 200030, Shanghai 200052
China

Cheng Li

Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) - International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital ( email )

1961 Huashan Rd
Shanghai Shi, 200030
China

Jian-Xia Fan

Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) - International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital ( email )

1961 Huashan Rd
Shanghai Shi, 200030
China

Hong Li

Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) - International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital ( email )

1961 Huashan Rd
Shanghai Shi, 200030
China

Lei Chen

Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) - International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital ( email )

1961 Huashan Rd
Shanghai Shi, 200030
China

Hua-Lin Xu

Shaoxing Maternity & Child Health Hospital

Shaoxing City
China

Xiang-Juan Li

Hangzhou Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital ( email )

China

Yi Guo

Dalian Maternity and Child Health Hospital ( email )

No. 1 Dunhuang Road
Dalian, Shahekou District
China

Ye-Ping Wang

Government of the People's Republic of China - Wenzhou People's Hospital ( email )

Zhejiang
China

Xiu-Feng Li

Jiashan Maternity and Child Health Hospital ( email )

Jing Li

Fuzhou Maternity and Child Health Hospital of Jiangxi Province ( email )

Ying Wang

Maternity and Child Health Hospital of Songjiang District ( email )

Shanghai
China

Yi-Ping You

Maternity and Child Health Hospital of Hunan Province ( email )

Hong-Mei Li

Affiliated Hospital of Yanan University ( email )

Shuang-Qi Yang

Enze Women’s and Children’s Hospital ( email )

Taizhou, Zhejiang
China

Xiao-Ling Tao

Taizhou Hospital of Zhejiang Province ( email )

Zhejiang
China

Ya-Juan Xu

Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University ( email )

Zhengzhou
China

Hai-Hong Lao

Hainan Women and Children's Medical Center ( email )

Ming Wen

First People‘s Hospital of Wuhu ( email )

Yan Zhou

People's Hospital of Changshan ( email )

Jun-Ying Wang

Shengzhou Maternity and Child Health Hospital ( email )

Yu-Hua Chen

Wenchang Maternity and Child Health Hospital ( email )

Di-Yun Meng

Huzhou Maternity and Child Health Hospital ( email )

Jing-Li Zhai

Karamay Central Hospital of XinJiang ( email )

You-Chun Ye

People’s Hospital of Yinzhou District ( email )

Qin-Wen Zhong

Fuyang Maternity and Child Health Hospital ( email )

Xiu-Ping Yang

Enze Women’s and Children’s Hospital

Taizhou, Zhejiang
China

Dan Zhang

Zhejiang University - Key Laboratory of Reproductive Genetics (Ministry of Education) ( email )

Zhejiang, 310058
China

Zhejiang University - Department of Reproductive Endocrinology ( email )

Zhejiang
China

Jing Zhang

Ningbo Affiliated Hospital of Ningbo University School of Medicine ( email )

Xifeng Wu

Zhejiang University - School of Medicine ( email )

866 Yuhangtang Road
Binjiang
Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058
China

Wei Chen

Zhejiang University - School of Medicine ( email )

866 Yuhangtang Road
Binjiang
Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058
China

He-Feng Huang (Contact Author)

Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) - International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital ( email )

1961 Huashan Rd
Shanghai Shi, 200030
China

Zhejiang University - Key Laboratory of Reproductive Genetics (Ministry of Education)

Zhejiang, 310058
China

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Embryo Original Diseases ( email )

Shanghai
China

Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) - Institute of Embryo-Fetal Original Adult Disease ( email )

China

Zhejiang University - Key Laboratory of Reproductive Genetics (Ministry of Education)

Zhejiang, 310058
China

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