A Superfamily of T6SS Antibacterial Effectors Displaying L,D-Carboxypeptidase Activity Towards Peptidoglycan
32 Pages Posted: 3 Mar 2020 Sneak Peek Status: Review CompleteMore...
Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are contractile nanomachines used by bacteria to inject toxic effectors into competitors. The identity and mechanism of many effectors remain unknown. We characterized a Salmonella SPI-6 T6SS antibacterial effector called Tae5STM (type VI amidase effector 5). Tae5STM is toxic in target-cell periplasm and is neutralized by its cognate immunity protein (Tai5STM). Microscopy analysis revealed that cells expressing the effector stop dividing and lose cell envelope integrity. Bioinformatic analysis uncovered similarities between Tae5STM and the catalytic domain of L,D-transpeptidase. Point mutations on conserved catalytic histidine and cysteine residues abrogated toxicity. Biochemical assays revealed that Tae5STM displays L,D-carboxypeptidase activity, cleaving peptidoglycan tetrapeptides between meso-diaminopimelic acid3 and D-alanine4. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Tae5STM homologs constitutes a new superfamily of T6SS-associated amidase effectors distributed among α-, β- and γ-proteobacteria. This work expands our current knowledge about bacterial effectors used in interbacterial competition.
Keywords: Salmonella, T6SS, SPI-6, Tae5, effector, toxin, peptidoglycan, L, D-carboxypeptidase
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation