Clinical Features and Treatment of 221 Patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China
37 Pages Posted: 4 Mar 2020More...
Background: In late December 2019, an outbreak of acute respiratory illness, now officially named as COVID-19, or coronavirus disease 2019, emerged in Wuhan, China. We aimed to study the epidemiology and clinical features of patients diagnosed as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and their treatment and outcome in Wuhan, China.
Methods: We did a single center, retrospective case series study in patients from Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China. 221 admitted patients with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, including 55 severe patients and 166 non-severe patients, were recruited from January 2, 2020 to February 10, 2020. Data of epidemiology, clinic, laboratory exams, radiology and treatment were collected from standardized case report forms and compared between the severe and non-severe patients with COVID-19. Specifically, the outcome of corticosteroid therapy was analyzed in the severe patients in intensive care unit (ICU).
Findings: Of the 221 patients with COVID-19, 108 (48.9%) of them were male and only 8 (3.6%) patients had a history of exposure to the Huanan Seafood Market. Compared to the non-severe patients, the median age of the severe patients was significantly older (62.0 vs 51.0 years), and they were more likely to have chronic comorbidities, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease. Most common symptoms in severe patients were high fever, anorexia and dyspnea. On admission, 73 (33.0%) of the 221 patients showed leukopenia and 163 (73.8%) showed lymphopenia. The laboratory results showed more severity of aberrant coagulation pathway, hepatic injury, myocardial injury and kidney injury in the severe patients. In addition, the severe patients suffered a higher rate of co-infections with bacteria or fungus and they were more likely to developing complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), arrhythmia, acute cardiac injury, shock and acute kidney injury. As of Feb 15, 2020, a total of 42 (19.0%) patients had been discharged and 12 (5.4%) patients died. In the 55 severe patients, 44 (80%) of them received ICU care, and 23 of them transferred to the general wards due to relieved symptoms, and the mortality rate was 21.8%.
Interpretation: In this single-center case series of 221 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, 55 severe patients with elder age and chronic comorbidities, developed more than one complication. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the severe patients compared to that in the non-severe patients (21.8% vs 0.0%). Older and male patients with higher APACHE II & SOFA scores, elevated PCT level, excessive fluid volume input, as well as the delayed use of corticosteroid might increase the risk of death in ICU.
Funding Statement: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 81700493 to Dr. Pan; grant no. 81971816 to Dr. Peng).
Declaration of Interests: The authors declared no conflicts.
Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the National Health Commission of China and Ethics Commission of Zhongnan Hospital. Written informed consent was waived by the Ethics Commission for emerging infectious disease.
Keywords: coronavirus disease 2019; clinical features; treatment; severe patients
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