The Benefits Are at the Tail: Uncovering the Impact of Macroprudential Policy on Growth-At-Risk

41 Pages Posted: 5 Mar 2020

Date Written: March 4, 2020


This paper brings together recent developments on the growth-at-risk methodology and the literature on the impact of macroprudential policy. For this purpose, I extend the recent proposals on the use of quantile regressions of GDP growth by including macrofinancial variables with early warning properties of systemic risk, and macroprudential measures. I identify heterogeneous effects of macroprudential policy on GDP growth, uncovering important benefits on the left tail of its distribution. The positive effect of macroprudential policy on reducing the downside risk of GDP is found to be larger than the negative impact on the median, suggesting a net positive effect in the mid-term. Nonetheless, I identify heterogeneous effects depending on the position in the financial cycle, the direction of the policy, the type of instrument, and the time elapsed since its implementation. In particular, tightening capital measures during expansions may take up to two years in evidencing benefits on growth-at-risk, while the positive impact of borrower-based measures is rapidly observed. This suggests the need of implementing capital measures, such as the countercyclical capital buffer, early enough in the cycle; while borrower-based measures can be tightened in more advanced stages. Conversely, in downturns the benefits of loosening capital measures are immediate, while those of borrower-based measures are limited. Overall, this study provides a useful framework to assess costs and benefits of macroprudential policy in terms of GDP growth, and to identify the term-structure of specific types of instruments.

Keywords: financial stability, growth-at-risk, systemic risk, macroprudential policy, quantile regressions

JEL Classification: C32, E32, E58, G01, G28

Suggested Citation

Galán, Jorge, The Benefits Are at the Tail: Uncovering the Impact of Macroprudential Policy on Growth-At-Risk (March 4, 2020). Banco de Espana Working Paper No. 2007 (2020), Available at SSRN: or

Jorge Galán (Contact Author)

Banco de España ( email )

Alcala 48
Madrid 28014

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