What Taylor Swift and Beyoncé Teach Us About Sex and Causes

12 Pages Posted: 30 Mar 2020 Last revised: 20 May 2020

See all articles by Robin Dembroff

Robin Dembroff

Assistant Professor of Philosophy

Issa Kohler-Hausmann

Yale Law School

Elise Sugarman

Stanford University

Date Written: March 4, 2020

Abstract

In the consolidated cases Altitude Express v. Zarda, Bostock v. Clayton County, and R.G. & G.R. Harris Funeral Homes v. EEOC, the Supreme Court will decide whether or not Title VII prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. Although the parties disagree as to the appropriate formulation of a but-for test to determine whether or not there was a discriminatory outcome, all parties do agree to the use of such a test, which asks “whether the evidence shows ‘treatment of a person in a manner which but for that person’s sex would be different.’” City of Los Angeles, Dep’t. of Water and Power v. Manhart, 435 U.S. 702, 711 (1978). However, but-for tests confuse more than they clarify the inquiry; a discriminatory outcome cannot be explained by appeal to just a discrete characteristic of a particular person. Individuals are not discriminated against because of these characteristics per se. Rather, they are discriminated against because of the social meanings and expectations that attach to these characteristics. Beyoncé and Taylor Swift illustrate the difference between individual-level causation and social explanation in two separate songs, “If I Were a Boy” and “The Man.” The explanation for why the counterfactual ‘male’ Beyoncé and Swift are evaluated differently than their current ‘female’ versions does not lie in individual-level features considered apart from the social world, but in social-level roles and expectations associated with those features. For this reason, a social explanation test—one that asks whether the social meanings of sex characteristics, rather than the characteristics per se, explain the outcome in question—is more suitable for determining whether or not Title VII has been violated.

Keywords: discrimination, gay, trans, gender, sex, Title VII

Suggested Citation

Dembroff, Robin and Kohler-Hausmann, Issa and Sugarman, Elise, What Taylor Swift and Beyoncé Teach Us About Sex and Causes (March 4, 2020). University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Forthcoming. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3548898

Robin Dembroff

Assistant Professor of Philosophy ( email )

New Haven, CT 06520
United States

Elise Sugarman

Stanford University ( email )

Stanford, CA
United States

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