Multiple Risk Factors of Depression and Anxiety in Medical Staffs: A Cross-Sectional Study at the Outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in China
18 Pages Posted: 23 Mar 2020More...
Background: The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China may bring negative impact on the mental health of medical staffs. This study was conducted to evaluate the status of depression and anxiety of medical staffs and to explore the risk factors.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed including an unselected sample of medical staffs. A structured questionnaire was designed to collect the information of the basic characteristics, workload, and the health condition. Burnout and coping style were evaluated with the 15-item Chinese version of Maslach Burnout Inventory (CMBI) and 20-item Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ), respectively. Generalized anxiety disorder 7 ‐item scale (GAD-7) and 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were used to evaluate the status of anxiety and depression. Multiple logistic regression model was performed to explore the risk factors of anxiety or depression.
Outcomes: 906 questionnaires were received between February 9, 2020 to February 11, 2020. There were 36.67% participants with neither anxiety nor depression. 38.89% of participants had mild anxiety or mild depression. The proportion of participants had moderate/severe anxiety or moderate/severe depression were 24∙44%, of which 10∙44% had both moderate/severe anxiety and moderate/severe depression. The increased workload (OR=1∙971, 95%CI: 1∙291, 3∙031), having respiratory symptoms (OR=1∙799, 95%CI: 1∙118, 2∙866) and digestive symptoms (OR=1∙697, 95%CI: 1∙083, 2∙639), negative coping style (OR=3∙415, 95%CI: 2∙272, 5∙163), emotional exhaustion (OR=4∙492, 95%CI: 2∙106, 9∙836), and depersonalization (OR=3∙906, 95%CI: 2∙325, 6∙528), were independent risk factors of anxiety. Furthermore, the increased workload (OR=2∙002, 95%CI: 1∙305, 3∙094), having respiratory symptoms (OR=1∙864, 95%CI: 1∙148, 3∙001) and digestive symptoms (OR=1∙681, 95%CI: 1∙062, 2∙644), negative coping style (OR=4∙674, 95%CI: 3∙079, 7∙169), emotional exhaustion (OR=5∙817, 95%CI: 2∙550, 13∙842), depersonalization (OR=6∙705, 95% CI: 3∙987, 11∙347), and decreased personal accomplishment (OR=1∙551, 95%CI: 1∙006, 2∙407), were independent risk factors of depression.
Interpretation: More attention should be paid to the mental health of frontline medical personnel at the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in China. Taking steps to reduce the intensity of the work and burnout will be effective to stabilize the mental state of them.
Funding Statement: Urgent projects of scientific and technological research on COVID-19 funded by Hubei province (2020FCA014) supported this work.
Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Ethics Approval Statement: This cross-sectional study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College. All the participants agreed the online informed consent before entering the online questionnaire. The questionnaire was filled out voluntarily and the personal information was kept confidential.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, Anxiety, Depression, Job burnout, Coping style, Medical staff
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