SARS-CoV-2 Receptor ACE2 is an Interferon-Stimulated Gene in Human Airway Epithelial Cells and Is Enriched in Specific Cell Subsets Across Tissues
42 Pages Posted: 17 Mar 2020 Sneak Peek Status: Under ReviewMore...
There is pressing urgency to better understand the pathogenesis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) clade SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2, like SARS-CoV, utilizes ACE2 to bind host cells. While initial SARS-CoV-2 cell entry and infection depend on ACE2 in concert with the protease TMPRSS2 for spike (S) protein activation, the specific cell subsets targeted by SARS-CoV-2 in host tissues, and the factors that regulate ACE2 expression, remain unknown. Here, we leverage human and non-human primate (NHP) single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) datasets to uncover the cell subsets that may serve as cellular targets of SARS-CoV-2. We identify ACE2/TMPRSS2 co-expressing cells within type II pneumocytes, absorptive enterocytes, and nasal goblet secretory cells. Strikingly, we discover that ACE2 is an interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) in human barrier tissue epithelial cells. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 may exploit IFN-driven upregulation of ACE2, a key tissue-protective mediator during lung injury, to enhance infection.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, single-cell RNA-sequencing, ACE2, interferon, interferon stimulated gene, barrier tissues, human, non-human primate, epithelial tissues, host-pathogen
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