Forced Displacement and Asylum Policy in the Developing World
101 Pages Posted: 10 Apr 2020 Last revised: 5 Apr 2021
Date Written: April 5, 2021
Little theoretical or empirical work examines migration policy in the developing world. We develop and test a two-stage theory that distinguishes the drivers of policy reform and factors influencing the direction of reform. We introduce an original dataset of de jure asylum and refugee policies covering more than 90 developing countries that are presently excluded from existing indices of migration policy. Examining descriptive trends in the data, we find that unlike in the Global North, forced displacement policies in the Global South have become more liberal over time. Empirically, we test the determinants of asylum policymaking, bolstering our quantitative results with qualitative evidence from interviews in Uganda. A number of key findings emerge. Intense, proximate civil wars are the primary impetus for asylum policy change in the Global South. Liberalizing changes are made by regimes led by political elites whose ethnic kin confront discrimination or violence in neighboring countries. There is no generalizable evidence that repressive regimes liberalize asylum policy in exchange for economic assistance from Western actors. Distinct frameworks are needed to understand migration policymaking in developing versus developed countries.
Keywords: Forced Displacement, Migration Policy
JEL Classification: F22, J15
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation