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SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Health Care Workers: A Retrospective Analysis and Model Simulations of a Nosocomial Outbreak

37 Pages Posted: 9 Apr 2020

See all articles by Yansen Bai

Yansen Bai

Huazhong University of Science and Technology - Department of Occupational and Environmental Health

Xuan Wang

Huazhong University of Science and Technology - Department of Neurosurgery

Qimin Huang

Case Western Reserve University - Department of Mathematics

Han Wang

Case Western Reserve University - Department of Biochemistry

David Gurarie

Case Western Reserve University - Department of Mathematics; Case Western Reserve University - Center for Global Health and Diseases

Martial Ndeffo-Mbah

Texas A&M University - Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences; Texas A&M University - School of Public Health

Fei Fan

Huazhong University of Science and Technology - Department of Neurosurgery

Peng Fu

Huazhong University of Science and Technology - Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery; Huazhong University of Science and Technology - Department of Neurosurgery

Mary Ann Horn

Case Western Reserve University - Department of Mathematics

Shuai Xu

Case Western Reserve University - Computer and Data Science Department

Anirban Mondal

Case Western Reserve University - Department of Mathematics

Xiaobing Jiang

Huazhong University of Science and Technology - Department of Neurosurgery

Hongyang Zhao

Huazhong University of Science and Technology - Department of Neurosurgery

More...

Abstract

Background: There had been a preliminary occurrence of human-to-human transmissions between healthcare workers (HCWs), but risk factors in the susceptibility for COVID-19, and infection patterns among HCWs have largely remained unknown.

Methods: Retrospective data collection on demographics, lifestyles, contact status with infected subjects for 118 HCWs (include 12 COVID-19 HCWs) from a single-center. Sleep quality and working pressure were evaluated by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and The Nurse Stress Index (NSI), respectively. Follow-up duration was from Dec 25, 2019, to Feb 15, 2020. Risk factors and transmission models of COVID-19 among HCWs were analyzed and constructed.

Findings: A high proportion of COVID-19 HCWs had engaged in night shift-work (75.0% vs. 40.6%) and felt they were working under pressure (66.7% vs. 32.1%) than uninfected HCWs. COVID-19 HCWs had higher total scores of PSQI and NSI than uninfected HCWs. Furthermore, these scores were both positively associated with COVID-19 risk. An individual-based model (IBM) estimated the outbreak duration among HCWs in a non-typical COVID-19 ward at 62-80 days and the basic reproduction number =1.27 [1.06, 1.61]. By reducing the average contact rate per HCW by a 1.35 factor and susceptibility by a 1.40 factor, we can avoid an outbreak of the basic case among HCWs.

Interpretation: Poor sleep quality and high working pressure were positively associated with high risks of COVID-19. A novel IBM of COVID-19 transmission is suitable for simulating different outbreak patterns in a hospital setting.

Funding Statement: This work was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (grant 2020kfyXGYJ010 to Dr. X. Jiang).

Declaration of Interests: None.

Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the institutional ethics board of Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (No. 20200029).

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; health care workers; sleep quality; working pressure; individual-based mode

Suggested Citation

Bai, Yansen and Wang, Xuan and Huang, Qimin and Wang, Han and Gurarie, David and Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial and Fan, Fei and Fu, Peng and Horn, Mary Ann and Xu, Shuai and Mondal, Anirban and Jiang, Xiaobing and Zhao, Hongyang, SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Health Care Workers: A Retrospective Analysis and Model Simulations of a Nosocomial Outbreak (3/27/2020). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3566208 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3566208

Yansen Bai

Huazhong University of Science and Technology - Department of Occupational and Environmental Health

13 Hangkong Rd
Wuhan, 430030
China

Xuan Wang

Huazhong University of Science and Technology - Department of Neurosurgery

China

Qimin Huang

Case Western Reserve University - Department of Mathematics

United States

Han Wang

Case Western Reserve University - Department of Biochemistry

Cleveland, OH
United States

David Gurarie

Case Western Reserve University - Department of Mathematics

United States

Case Western Reserve University - Center for Global Health and Diseases

Cleveland, OH
United States

Martial Ndeffo-Mbah

Texas A&M University - Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences

United States

Texas A&M University - School of Public Health

College Station, TX
United States

Fei Fan

Huazhong University of Science and Technology - Department of Neurosurgery

China

Peng Fu

Huazhong University of Science and Technology - Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery ( email )

Wuhan
China

Huazhong University of Science and Technology - Department of Neurosurgery ( email )

China

Mary Ann Horn

Case Western Reserve University - Department of Mathematics

United States

Shuai Xu

Case Western Reserve University - Computer and Data Science Department

Cleveland, OH
United States

Anirban Mondal

Case Western Reserve University - Department of Mathematics

United States

Xiaobing Jiang (Contact Author)

Huazhong University of Science and Technology - Department of Neurosurgery

China

Hongyang Zhao

Huazhong University of Science and Technology - Department of Neurosurgery

China