The Evolving Role of Oil and Gas Companies in the Energy Industry
14 Pages Posted: 28 Apr 2020
Date Written: April 5, 2020
This paper provides a review of the evolving role and characteristics of the global oil and gas companies, which increasingly come in a variety of flavors. It also surveys the different types of global oil and gas companies that include national oil companies (NOCs), international oil companies (IOCs), Independents, and oilfield services companies (OFSCs).
The continued rise of NOCs, accelerated by high oil prices, has seen the balance of control over most of the world’s hydrocarbon resources shift decisively in their favor. Their ability to access capital, human resources and technical services directly from oil field service companies, and to build in-house competencies, allows them to operate independently of Investor Owned Companies in most instances.
The demand on NOCs continues to evolve with the global energy landscape to reflect variations in demand, discovery of new ultra-deep water oil deposits, and national and geopolitical developments. NOCs, traditionally viewed as the custodians of their country's natural resources, have generally owned and managed the complete national oil and gas supply chain from upstream to downstream activities. Having secured their home base, NOCs have emerged as joint venture partners with the IOCs and increasingly as their competitors, seeking international upstream and downstream acquisition and asset targets.
The key question is whether this emerging landscape will undermine the sustainability of the IOC resource-ownership business model. Are the challenges of declining production in existing oil fields replacing oil and gas reserves in restricted access or higher cost areas, and the declining of the operating profit margins yet sufficient to reach a tipping point?
Keywords: National oil companies, International oil companies, Petroleum, Operating Models
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