Ethical and Legal Challenges of Artificial Intelligence-Driven Healthcare
This article was published in Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare, 1st edition, Adam Bohr, Kaveh Memarzadeh (eds.), ISBN: 9780128184387, Copyright Elsevier, 2020
42 Pages Posted: 26 May 2020 Last revised: 1 Mar 2021
Date Written: 2020
This chapter will map the ethical and legal challenges posed by artificial intelligence (AI) in health care and suggest directions for resolving them. Section 1 will briefly clarify what AI is and Section 2 will give an idea of the trends and strategies in the United States (U.S.) and Europe, thereby tailoring the discussion to the ethical and legal debate of AI-driven health care.
This will be followed in Section 3 by a discussion of four primary ethical challenges, namely:
(1) informed consent to use,
(2) safety and transparency,
(3) algorithmic fairness and biases, and
(4) data privacy.
Section 4 will then analyze five legal challenges in the U.S. and Europe:
(1) safety and effectiveness,
(3) data protection and privacy,
(4) cybersecurity, and
(5) intellectual property law.
Finally, Section 5 will summarize the major conclusions and especially emphasize the importance of building an AI-driven health care system that is successful and promotes trust and the motto “Health AIs for All of Us”.
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence (AI), Ethical Challenges, U.S. and EU Law, Safety and Effectiveness, Data Protection and Privacy
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