A Multi-Layered Systems Approach for Renal Cell Carcinoma
77 Pages Posted: 29 Apr 2020 Publication Status: Review CompleteMore...
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) still lacks prognostic and predictive biomarkers to monitor the disease and the response to therapy. The usual strategy in translational research is to start from human samples, to identify molecular markers and gene networks and then to functionally validate them in vitro and in animal models. We devised herein a completely opposite strategy from “mouse to man” by performing an aggressiveness screen and used functional genomics, imaging, clinical data and computational approaches in order to discover molecular pathways and players in renal cancer development and metastasis. Multiple cell lines for primary tumor growth, survival in the blood circulation and lung metastasis or metastatic spread from the primary tumor were generated and analyzed using a multi-layered approach which includes large-scale transcriptome, genome and methylome analyses. Transcriptome and methylome analyses demonstrated distinct clustering in three different groups. Remarkably, DNA sequencing did not show significant genomic variations in the different groups which indicates absence of clonal selection during the in vivo amplification process. Transcriptome analysis revealed distinct signatures of tumor aggressiveness which were validated in patient cohorts. Methylome analysis of full-length DNA allowed clustering of the same groups and revealed clinically relevant signatures. Furthermore, we identified SAA2 and CFB as soluble prognostic and predictive biomarkers of the therapeutic response. We also uncovered IL34 as another soluble prognostic biomarker and key regulator of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progression. This was also functionally validated in vivo, and a mathematical model of IL34-dependent primary tumor growth and metastasis development was provided. These results indicate that such multilayered analysis in a RCC animal model leads to meaningful results that are of translational significance.
Keywords: Renal cell carcinoma, agressivness screen, metastasis, tumor model, multi-layer approach
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