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Comparison of SARS-CoV-2 Infections Among Three Species of Non-Human Primates

27 Pages Posted: 8 May 2020

See all articles by Shuaiyao Lu

Shuaiyao Lu

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yuan Zhao

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Wenhai Yu

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yun Yang

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Jiahong Gao

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Junbin Wang

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Dexuan Kuang

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Mengli Yang

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Jing Yang

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Chunxia Ma

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Jingwen Xu

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Xingli Qian

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Haiyan Li

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Siwen Zhao

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Jingmei Li

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Haixuan Wang

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Haiting Long

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Jingxian Zhou

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Fangyu Luo

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Kaiyun Ding

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Daoju Wu

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yong Zhang

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yinliang Dong

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yuqin Liu

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - State Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology

Yinqiu Zheng

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Xiaochen Lin

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Li Jiao

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Huanying Zheng

Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention - Medical Key Laboratory for Repository and Application of Pathogenic Microbiology

Qing Dai

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Qiangming Sun

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunzhang Hu

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Changwen Ke

Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention - Medical Key Laboratory for Repository and Application of Pathogenic Microbiology

Hongqi Liu

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Xiaozhong Peng

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center; Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - Peking Union Medical College

More...

Abstract

Background: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, has recently been announced as a pandemic all over the world. Remarkable achievements have been made in diagnosis, prevention and treatment of COVID-19 from clinical studies. However, animal models, particularly non-human primate models, are urgently needed for critical questions that could not be answered in clinical patients, evaluations of anti-viral drugs and vaccines.

Methods: Two families of three species of non-human primates (NHP), old world monkeys (Macaca mulatta, Macaca fascicularis) and new world monkeys (Callithrix jacchus), were experimentally inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. Clinical signs were recorded. Samples were collected for analysis of viral shedding, viremia and evaluation of host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Findings: Increased body temperature was observed in M. mulatta and M. fascicularis, but not C. jacchus post inoculation of SARS-CoV-2. All of M. mulatta and M. fascicularis showed chest radiographic abnormality. Viral genomes were detected in swab samples and blood from all 3 species of monkeys. Viral shedding from upper respiratory reached the peak between day 6 and day 8 post inoculation. Viruses were mainly detected in lung, weasand, bronchus and spleen of M. mulatta and M. fascicularis, but not C. jacchus. M. mulatta showed stronger cytokine responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection than M. fascicularis. Severe gross lesions and histopathological changes were observed mainly in lung and secondary lymphoid of SARS-CoV-2 infected M. mulatta and M. fascicularis. The susceptibility to SARS-CoV2 infection is M. mulatta > M. fascicularis > C. jacchus.

Interpretations: We have established a NHP model for COVID-19, which recapitulates several important aspects of COVID-19 patients and could be used to evaluate anti-viral drugs and vaccines, and investigate viral pathogenesis.

Funding Statement: This study was supported by 2020YFC0841100 and 2020YFC0846400.

Declaration of Interests: None.

Ethics Approval Statement: All animal procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science (Ethics number: DWSP202002 001), and performed in the ABSL-4 facility of National Kunming High-level Biosafety Primate Research Center, Yunnan China.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; non-human primate; animal model; inflammatory cytokines

Suggested Citation

Lu, Shuaiyao and Zhao, Yuan and Yu, Wenhai and Yang, Yun and Gao, Jiahong and Wang, Junbin and Kuang, Dexuan and Yang, Mengli and Yang, Jing and Ma, Chunxia and Xu, Jingwen and Qian, Xingli and Li, Haiyan and Zhao, Siwen and Li, Jingmei and Wang, Haixuan and Long, Haiting and Zhou, Jingxian and Luo, Fangyu and Ding, Kaiyun and Wu, Daoju and Zhang, Yong and Dong, Yinliang and Liu, Yuqin and Zheng, Yinqiu and Lin, Xiaochen and Jiao, Li and Zheng, Huanying and Dai, Qing and Sun, Qiangming and Hu, Yunzhang and Ke, Changwen and Liu, Hongqi and Peng, Xiaozhong, Comparison of SARS-CoV-2 Infections Among Three Species of Non-Human Primates (4/17/2020). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3578773 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3578773

Shuaiyao Lu

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Yuan Zhao

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Wenhai Yu

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Yun Yang

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Jiahong Gao

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Junbin Wang

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Dexuan Kuang

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Mengli Yang

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Jing Yang

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Chunxia Ma

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Jingwen Xu

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Xingli Qian

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Haiyan Li

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Siwen Zhao

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Jingmei Li

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Haixuan Wang

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Haiting Long

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Jingxian Zhou

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Fangyu Luo

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Kaiyun Ding

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Daoju Wu

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Yong Zhang

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Yinliang Dong

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Yuqin Liu

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - State Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology

China

Yinqiu Zheng

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Xiaochen Lin

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Li Jiao

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Huanying Zheng

Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention - Medical Key Laboratory for Repository and Application of Pathogenic Microbiology

Guangzhou
China

Qing Dai

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Qiangming Sun

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Yunzhang Hu

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Changwen Ke

Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention - Medical Key Laboratory for Repository and Application of Pathogenic Microbiology

Guangzhou
China

Hongqi Liu

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center

Yunnan
China

Xiaozhong Peng (Contact Author)

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center ( email )

935 Jiaoling Road
Kunming, Yunnan
China
011-86-871-68334521 (Phone)
011-86-871-68334483 (Fax)

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - Peking Union Medical College ( email )

NO. 9, Dongdan Santiao
Beijing, Dongcheng District
China
011-86-871-68334521 (Phone)
011-86-871-68334483 (Fax)

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