International and Institutional R&D Spillovers: Attribution of Benefits Among Sources for Brazil's New Crop Varieties

20 Pages Posted: 22 Apr 2020

See all articles by Philip Pardey

Philip Pardey

University of Minnesota - Minneapolis

Julian Alston

University of California, Davis - Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics

Connie Chan-Kang

University of Minnesota - College of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences - Department of Applied Economics

Eduardo C. Magalhães

Independent

Stephen A. Vosti

University of California, Davis - Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics

Date Written: February 2006

Abstract

Reported rates of return to agricultural R&D are generally high, but they are likely to be biased, particularly because of attribution problems—mismatching research benefits with costs. The importance of attribution biases is illustrated here with new evidence for Brazil. During 1981–2003, varietal improvements in upland rice, edible beans, and soybeans yielded benefits of $14.8 billion in present value (1999 prices) terms. Attributing all of the benefits to Embrapa, a public research corporation accounting for more than half of Brazil's agricultural R&D spending, the benefit‐cost ratio would be 78:1. Under alternative attribution rules, the ratio drops to 16:1.

Keywords: agricultural R&D, attribution, benefit-cost ratios, Brazil

Suggested Citation

Pardey, Philip and Alston, Julian and Chan-Kang, Connie and Magalhães, Eduardo C. and Vosti, Stephen A., International and Institutional R&D Spillovers: Attribution of Benefits Among Sources for Brazil's New Crop Varieties (February 2006). American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 88, Issue 1, pp. 104-123, 2006, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3581939 or http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8276.2006.00841.x

Philip Pardey (Contact Author)

University of Minnesota - Minneapolis

Julian Alston

University of California, Davis - Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics ( email )

One Shields Avenue
Davis, CA 95616
United States

Connie Chan-Kang

University of Minnesota - College of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences - Department of Applied Economics ( email )

1994 Buford Avenue
St. Paul, MN 55108
United States
(612) 624-6266 (Phone)

HOME PAGE: http://www.apec.umn.edu/Connie_Chan-Kang.html

Eduardo C. Magalhães

Independent

Stephen A. Vosti

University of California, Davis - Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics ( email )

One Shields Avenue
Davis, CA 95616
United States
(530) 754-6731 (Phone)
(530) 754-9141 (Fax)

HOME PAGE: http://johnmuir.ucdavis.edu/people/faculty_experts.asp?id=vosti

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