Incidence of Covid-19 and Connections with Air Pollution Exposure: Evidence from the Netherlands

30 Pages Posted: 27 Apr 2020 Last revised: 6 May 2020

See all articles by Bo Pieter Johannes Andree

Bo Pieter Johannes Andree

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, School of Business and Economics; World Bank; Tinbergen Institute

Date Written: April 24, 2020

Abstract

The fast spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has resulted in the emergence of several hot-spots around the world. Several of these are located in areas associated with high levels of air pollution. This study investigates the relationship between exposure to particulate matter and COVID-19 incidence in 355 municipalities in the Netherlands. The results show that atmospheric particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 is a highly significant predictor of the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases and related hospital admissions. The estimates suggest that expected COVID-19 cases increase by nearly 100 percent when pollution concentrations increase by 20 percent. The association between air pollution and case incidence is robust in the presence of data on health-related preconditions, proxies for symptom severity, and demographic control variables. The results are obtained with ground-measurements and satellite-derived measures of atmospheric particulate matter as well as COVID-19 data from alternative dates. The findings call for further investigation into the association between air pollution and SARS-CoV-2 infection risk. If particulate matter plays a significant role in COVID-19 incidence, it has strong implications for the mitigation strategies required to prevent spreading.

Keywords: Brown Issues and Health, Air Quality & Clean Air, Pollution Management & Control, Health Care Services Industry, Global Environment, Crime and Society

Suggested Citation

Andree, Bo Pieter Johannes, Incidence of Covid-19 and Connections with Air Pollution Exposure: Evidence from the Netherlands (April 24, 2020). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 9221, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3584842

Bo Pieter Johannes Andree (Contact Author)

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, School of Business and Economics ( email )

De Boelelaan 1105
Amsterdam, 1081HV
Netherlands

World Bank ( email )

1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433
United States

Tinbergen Institute ( email )

Burg. Oudlaan 50
Rotterdam, 3062 PA
Netherlands

Here is the Coronavirus
related research on SSRN

Paper statistics

Downloads
268
Abstract Views
2,309
rank
127,819
PlumX Metrics