Patterns of COVID-19 Mortality and Vitamin D: An Indonesian Study
14 Pages Posted: 30 Apr 2020 Last revised: 6 May 2020
Date Written: April 26, 2020
This is a retrospective cohort study which included two cohorts (active and expired) of 780 cases with laboratory-confirmed infection of SARS-CoV-2 in Indonesia. Age, sex, co-morbidity, Vitamin D status, and disease outcome (mortality) were extracted from electronic medical records. The aim was to determine patterns of mortality and associated factors, with a special focus on Vitamin D status. Results revealed that majority of the death cases were male and older and had pre-existing condition and below normal Vitamin D serum level. Univariate analysis revealed that older and male cases with pre-existing condition and below normal Vitamin D levels were associated with increasing odds of death. When controlling for age, sex, and comorbidity, Vitamin D status is strongly associated with COVID-19 mortality outcome of cases.
Note: Funding: The study was not funded by external sources.
Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Ethical Approval: The requirement for informed consent was waived by the Ethics Commission.
Keywords: COVID-2019, Infectious disease, Mortality, Vitamin D
JEL Classification: I12, I18, I28
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation