Grape Production Critical Review in the World

55 Pages Posted: 11 May 2020 Last revised: 22 Jun 2020

See all articles by Naushad Khan

Naushad Khan

University of Agriculture, Peshawar - Institute of Development Studies

Shah Fahad

University of Agriculture, Peshawar

Mahnoor Naushad

University of Agriculture, Peshawar

Shah Faisal

University of Agriculture, Peshawar

Date Written: May 8, 2020

Abstract

Grapes are a non-Climatic type of fruit, generally occurring in clusters. The cultivation of the domesticated grape began 6,000–8,000 years ago in the Near East. Yeast is one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs naturally on the skins of grapes, leading to the discovery of alcoholic drinks such as wine. It is very important fruits and give more income to farmers than the other crops. Seeing to its importance, the present study was carried out since May, 2020. The universe of the study was the world. The major objective was to review the grape production in the world. Secondary day was used and total 31 articles were downloaded from the net and critically reviewed in depth and result was concluded. The result indicated that grapes are grown over the whole world. China, France, United America, South Africa, Italy, Chile, Iran, Turkey, Spain and Argentina are top ten countries in the world. In 2017 the China production was 13,083,000 tones and the South Africa was 2,032,582. The China production was on the top while the South Africa Production was at the 10th number in the world. Similarly the world top ten varieties are Cabernet Sauvignon which is grown on 840,000 acres area in the world while Merlot area is 657,300 acres. Similarly the Tempranillo area is 570,800 acres Airén, 538 700 acres, Chardonnay 518,900 acres, Syrah, 470 000 acres. The Grenache Noir area is 402,780 acres, Sauvignon Blanc, 299 000 acres, Pinot Noir, 285,000 acres , Trebbiano Toscano / Ugni Blanc, 274,300 acres. Airén is a white grape used a lot in Spain, often for quite unpretentious wines. Tempranillo is also Spanish but more famous, especially if you are a fan of Rioja. Tempranillo and Airén are very dominant in Spain. They are planted on almost 45% of the Spanish Vineland. Rrebbiano in Italy is the same as Ugni Blanc in France. In Italy, it is responsible for many white wines of rather a bland character. In France, it is used for Cognac and the producers there like it precisely for its blandness. But it does make a good Cognac. Grapes are grown in all countries of the world and give more money than the other crops to farmers. In Pakistan in the Area of Shekhpura one farmer told that it give 14 times more income than the wheat. In Pakistan it is mostly grown in Baluchistan while in Sind area some projects are working for grape production enhancement. Similarly grape has some essential elements which play great role in health problems. From grapes wines are prepared which give more income to European countries. It needs very less water till maturity. It has two types namely table grapes and non table grapes in the world. It also help in diabetes and blood pressures while play great role in heart problems. In France more people use grapes so there the problems of heart is very less than the other countries. Resvratrol also present in the grape which has anti-cancer properties and is very healthy for the glands and large intestine. “It is also beneficial to combat heart diseases, diseases of the nervous system, Alzheimer’s disease, viral infections and fungal infections. Resveratrol reduces the risk of paralysis by improving the molecular mechanism in the veins. So the discussion shows that grape is very important fruit of the world while sometime it is called king of the fruit. .According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 75,866 square kilometres of the world are dedicated to grapes. Approximately 71% of world grape production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit, and 2% as dried fruit. Raw grapes are 81% water, 18% carbohydrates, 1% protein, and have negligible fat. The farmers of the world are very poor and have no access to credit , so it is requested of the world bank to give proper loan to the world farmer for grapes grown, to in time purchase the inputs and in time marketed to the consumers in the world to earn money for their farming uplifting. Some pest also attacked on the grape and decreases the production of the farmer. The grape leaf hopper is the common insect pest feed on the vines from the time leaves appear in the spring until they drop in the fall. They remove the green chlorophyll, and the whole leaf may become pale, die and turn brown. Powdery mildew is a fungal disease prevalent on grapes. Any portion of plant such as leaves, blossom, fruit and young shoots may be affected. A white patch appearance may be noted on leaves young shoots; blossom fails to set fruit. Young berries attacked by this fungus may drop, or become hardened, discolored and cracked. To control powdery mildew apply fungicides before symptoms appear. Root knot caused by a gall-forming nematode may become a problem in sandy and sandy loam soil, resulting in a decline in vine vigor and reduction in yields. Resistant root-stocks should be used for grape production. Through fumigation the disease of the grapes should be controlled. So it is the duty of the government to controls the mentioned problems in their countries for enhancing of grape production. Every government should focus on this fruit and arrange propagation program in their countries because it give more benefit to the farmers instead of Wheat. Through this way industries will be developed and employment will be generated which play great role in the solution of unemployment problem in the country. In European countries the government mostly focuses on this fruit while in developing countries the program for grape is very slow, so it is the duty of every government in the world to spend more money on grape for enhancing grape industries in the developing countries. They are very poor and they have no access to credit and because of less money they did not start the grape program on their farm.

Keywords: Review, Grape, Production, World

JEL Classification: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3595842

Suggested Citation

Khan, Naushad and Fahad, Shah and Naushad, Mahnoor and Faisal, Shah, Grape Production Critical Review in the World (May 8, 2020). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3595842 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3595842

Naushad Khan (Contact Author)

University of Agriculture, Peshawar - Institute of Development Studies ( email )

University Campus
Peshawar, khyber Pakhtunkhwa 25000
Pakistan

Shah Fahad

University of Agriculture, Peshawar

Pakistan

Mahnoor Naushad

University of Agriculture, Peshawar

Shah Faisal

University of Agriculture, Peshawar ( email )

Pakistan

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