Telework, Wages, and Time Use in the United States

57 Pages Posted: 10 Jun 2020 Last revised: 29 Jul 2021

See all articles by Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia

Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia

U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics - Division of Productivity Research & Program Development

Victoria Vernon

State University of New York - Empire State College

Multiple version iconThere are 2 versions of this paper

Date Written: July 27, 2021

Abstract

Remote work is rapidly increasing in the U.S. Using data on full-time wage and salary workers from the 2017–2018 American Time Use Survey Leave and Job Flexibilities Module, we estimate hourly wage differentials for teleworkers and compare how workers allocate their time over the day when they work from home rather than the office. We find some teleworkers earn a wage premium, but it varies by gender, parental status, and teleworking intensity. Men, but not women, who work most of the week from home earn a wage premium. Among occasional teleworkers, we find a wage premium for fathers and women without children. Using time diaries, we find teleworkers spend less time on commuting and grooming activities but more time on leisure activities and more time with family on work-at-home days than office days, and female teleworkers spend more time on household production activities. We do not find differences in workers’ weekly hours by teleworker status, but male teleworkers on their work-from-home days work about 37 fewer minutes on weekday workdays than on-site workers, suggesting teleworkers are spreading their hours over the week.

Keywords: remote work, working from home, telework, wages, time use, commuting

JEL Classification: J22, J31, D13

Suggested Citation

Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff and Vernon, Victoria, Telework, Wages, and Time Use in the United States (July 27, 2021). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3601959 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3601959

Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia (Contact Author)

U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics - Division of Productivity Research & Program Development ( email )

2 Massachusetts Avenue, NE
Washington, DC 20212
United States
202-691-5614 (Phone)

Victoria Vernon

State University of New York - Empire State College ( email )

325 Hudston st, office 525
New York, NY 10013
United States

HOME PAGE: http://vvernon.sunyempirefaculty.net

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