Elevated Glucose Levels Favor Sars-Cov-2 Infection and Monocyte Response Through a Hif-1α/Glycolysis Dependent Axis
32 Pages Posted: 21 May 2020 Sneak Peek Status: Review CompleteMore...
COVID-19 can result in severe lung injury. It remained to be determined why diabetic individuals with uncontrolled glucose levels are more prone to develop the severe form of COVID-19. The molecular mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection and what determines the onset of the cytokine storm found in severe COVID-19 patients are unknown. Monocytes/macrophages are the most enriched immune cell types in the lungs of COVID-19 patients and appear to have a central role in the pathogenicity of the disease. These cells adapt their metabolism upon infection and become highly glycolytic, which facilitates SARS-CoV-2 replication. The infection triggers mitochondrial ROS production, which induces stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor- 1α (HIF - 1α) and consequently promotes glycolysis. HIF- 1α-induced changes in monocyte metabolism by SARS-CoV-2 infection directly inhibit T cell response and reduce epithelial cell survival. Targeting HIF-1 ɑ may have great therapeutic potential for the development of novel drugs to treat COVID-19.
Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, immunometabolism, HIF-1ɑ, glycolysis, diabetes, glucose levels, monocyte
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