Preventable Deaths Declined More in Medicaid Expansion States
16 Pages Posted: 16 Jun 2020
Date Written: November 20, 2019
The Affordable Care Act’s (ACA) expansion of Medicaid in 2014 has improved access to care, but data on its impact on health and mortality is limited. In this study, we use U.S. mortality data from 2011 to 2017 to analyze trends in mortality among adults ages 25-64 before and after Medicaid expansion. We analyze both all-cause mortality and mortality from causes considered amenable to health care and compare states that did and did not expand Medicaid. We found that while all-cause mortality rose steadily for non-elderly adults between 2013 and 2017, health care amenable mortality fell 68% more (-3.70% vs. -2.20%) in states that expanded Medicaid compared to those that did not. Although trends varied widely by state, Medicaid expansion states comprised 13 of the 15 states with the largest reductions in health care amenable mortality. The data suggest that Medicaid expansion may have prevented premature deaths during a period of rising overall mortality.
Keywords: health care reform, Medicaid, health disparities, insurance coverage, utilization, preventive care, Affordable Care Act, health care amenable mortality
JEL Classification: I13, I14, I18, H75, H51
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