Divided We Stay Home: Social Distancing and Ethnic Diversity
46 Pages Posted: 26 May 2020 Last revised: 19 Jun 2020
Date Written: June 18, 2020
Voluntary social distancing plays a vital role in containing the spread of the disease during a pandemic. As a public good, it should be more commonplace in more homogeneous and altruistic societies. However, for healthy people, social distancing offers private benefits, too. If sick people are more likely to stay home, healthy ones have fewer incentives to do so, especially if asymptomatic transmission is perceived to be unlikely. Theoretically, we show that this interplay may lead to stricter observance of social distancing guidelines in more diverse, less altruistic societies. Empirically, we find that, consistent with the model, mobility reduction following the first local case of COVID-19 was stronger in Russian cities with higher ethnic fractionalization and cities with higher levels of xenophobia. For identification, we predict the timing of the first case using preexisting patterns of internal migration to Moscow. Using SafeGraph data on mobility patterns, we confirm that mobility reduction in the United States was also higher in counties with higher ethnic fractionalization. Our findings highlight the importance of strategic incentives of different population groups for the effectiveness of public policy.
Keywords: COVID-19, pandemic, social distancing, quarantine, ethnic fractionalization, diversity, xenophobia, Russia
JEL Classification: D64, D74, I12
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation