Demand for Safe Spaces: Avoiding Harassment and Stigma

78 Pages Posted: 5 Jun 2020

See all articles by Florence Kondylis

Florence Kondylis

World Bank - Development Research Group (DECRG)

Arianna Legovini

World Bank

Kate Vyborny

Duke University - Department of Economics

Astrid Maria Theresia Zwager

World Bank

Luiza Cardoso De Andrade

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Date Written: June 3, 2020

Abstract

What are the costs to women of harassment on public transit? This study randomizes the price of a women-reserved "safe space" in Rio de Janeiro and crowdsource information on 22,000 rides. Women in the public space experience harassment once a week. A fifth of riders are willing to forgo 20 percent of the fare to ride in the "safe space" . Randomly assigning riders to the "safe space" reduces physical harassment by 50 percent, implying a cost of $1.45 per incident. Implicit Association Tests show that women face a stigma for riding in the public space that may outweigh the benefits of the safe space.

Keywords: Transport in Urban Areas, Urban Transport, Gender and Development, Crime and Society, Transport Services, Labor Markets

Suggested Citation

Kondylis, Florence and Legovini, Arianna and Vyborny, Kate and Zwager, Astrid Maria Theresia and Cardoso De Andrade, Luiza, Demand for Safe Spaces: Avoiding Harassment and Stigma (June 3, 2020). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 9269, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3618734

Florence Kondylis (Contact Author)

World Bank - Development Research Group (DECRG) ( email )

1818 H. Street, N.W.
MSN3-311
Washington, DC 20433
United States

Arianna Legovini

World Bank ( email )

1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433
United States

HOME PAGE: http://www.worldbank.org/dime

Kate Vyborny

Duke University - Department of Economics ( email )

213 Social Sciences Building
Box 90097
Durham, NC 27708-0204
United States

Astrid Maria Theresia Zwager

World Bank

1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433
United States

Luiza Cardoso De Andrade

affiliation not provided to SSRN

No Address Available

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