The End of the Demographic Dividend in Latin America: Challenges for Economic and Social Policies
13 Pages Posted: 18 Jun 2020
Date Written: February 13, 2020
Population ageing is a major global challenge. The Latin American economies have a younger population structure than other emerging and advanced economies, which has allowed them to enjoy the so-called demographic dividend (a favourable working age/non-working age population ratio). However, according to the latest demographic projections of the United Nations (UN), it is estimated that in 2020 the Latin American population pyramid will resemble that of the advanced economies in 1990 and that, by around 2050, both groups will have similar population profiles. This article documents the current demographic trends in Latin America and discusses the main related challenges, in particular, those arising from the adaptation of social welfare systems to population ageing.
Keywords: demographic dividend, ageing, pension systems, dependency ratio, total factor productivity.
JEL Classification: H55, J11, J26.
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