Credit Expansion, Bank Liberalization, and Structural Change in Bank Asset Accounts
25 Pages Posted: 9 Jul 2020
Date Written: May 4, 2020
This paper studies the links among credit supply expansion, commercial bank asset account structures, and the housing boom preceding the 2007-2009 financial crisis. We propose a real business cycle model with a housing market and financial intermediaries (banks) subject to leverage constraints. In our model, banks channel funds to firms for production and provide collateralized loans to mortgage borrowers; thus, banks determine their asset account structures endogenously. We show that a credit supply expansion to banks can account for four key facts that characterize the housing boom: (1) an increase in real house prices; (2) an increase in the mortgage-to-GDP ratio; (3) a decrease in the real mortgage interest rate; and (4) an increase in the ratio of mortgages to firm loans in commercial bank asset accounts. In our model, a credit supply expansion to banks can also generate a boom-bust cycle through the collateral value channel via mortgage borrowers. Asset-side bank regulations that reduce excessive mortgage issuance during a credit boom can help to dampen the subsequent economic downturn.
Keywords: Credit expansion, Bank liberalization, Bank balance sheet, Business cycle
JEL Classification: E32, E60, G21, G51
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation