The Gender Gap in Time Allocation in Europe

44 Pages Posted: 14 Jul 2020 Last revised: 19 May 2022

See all articles by José Ignacio Giménez-Nadal

José Ignacio Giménez-Nadal

University of Zaragoza

Jose Alberto Molina

University of Zaragoza - Department of Economic Analysis

Abstract

This article explores the gender gap in time allocation in Europe, offering up-to-date statistics and information on several factors that may help to explain these differences. Prior research has identified several factors affecting the time individuals devote to paid work, unpaid work, and child care, and the gender gaps in these activities, but most research refers to single countries, and general patterns are rarely explored. Cross-country evidence on gender gaps in paid work, unpaid work, and child care is offered, and explanations based on education, earnings, and household structure are presented, using data from the EUROSTAT and the Multinational Time Use Surveys. There are large cross-country differences in the gender gaps in paid work, unpaid work, and child care, which remain after controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, although the gender gap in paid work dissipates when the differential gendered relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and paid work is taken into account. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of gender gaps in Europe, helping to focus recent debates on how to tackle inequality in Europe, and clarifying the factors that contribute to gender inequalities in the uses of time.

Keywords: European countries, gender gap, unpaid work, paid work, earnings, household structure

JEL Classification: D10, J16, J22

Suggested Citation

Giménez-Nadal, José Ignacio and Molina Chueca, Jose Alberto, The Gender Gap in Time Allocation in Europe. IZA Discussion Paper No. 13461, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3648801

José Ignacio Giménez-Nadal (Contact Author)

University of Zaragoza ( email )

Gran Via 2
Zaragoza, 50005
Spain

Jose Alberto Molina Chueca

University of Zaragoza - Department of Economic Analysis ( email )

50005 Zaragoza
Spain

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