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Further Important Characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA Antibody Response, Potentially Influencing Clinical Outcome: Immediate Antibody Degression and Dependency on Sex

25 Pages Posted: 21 Jul 2020

See all articles by Wolfgang Korte

Wolfgang Korte

Zentrum für Labormedizin St. Gallen

Marija Buljan

Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology

Matthias Rösslein

Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology

Peter Wick

Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology

Valentina Golubov

Center for Laboratory Medicine, St. Gallen

Jana Jentsch

Center for Laboratory Medicine, St. Gallen

Michael Reut

Center for Laboratory Medicine, St. Gallen

Karen Peier

Cantonal Corona Study Group

Brigitte Nohynek

Cantonal Corona Study Group

Aldo Fischer

Cantonal Corona Study Group

Raphael Stolz

Cantonal Corona Study Group

Michele Cettuzzi

Cantonal Corona Study Group

More...

Abstract

Background: For future progress on controlling the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, an effective vaccine and/or herd immunity would be important goals. Both require a robust humoral immune response to raise sufficiently high titers of antibodies.

Methods: We repeatedly measured anti-nucleocapsid IgG and anti-spike IgG and IgA antibodies in 159 COVID-19 patients during a time course of two to ten weeks after PCR proven SARS-CoV-2 infection, reporting here in weekly intervals.

Findings: IgG were detected in in 93·5% to 95·4% of the patients at the peak of the antibody concentrations at week five after positive PCR. Thereafter, an immediate decline occurred in both IgG antibody types and became statistically significant by week eight (all p <0·012). The extent of the antibody response is associated to sex, with significantly higher concentrations observed in male patients (all p<0·0095). IgA showed a potential second wave after week eight, predominantly in men, which requires further clarification.

Interpretation: (Non-)control of the SARS-CoV-2 infection may depend on mechanisms beyond humoral response. The IgG decline immediately after reaching peak concentrations at week five is reason of concern, as an effective vaccine and/or herd immunity depend on a robust humoral response. The increased antibody concentrations observed in men might help to explain the worse clinical outcome in male COVID patients, e.g. through an increased inflammatory response.

Funding Statement: Center for Laboratory Medicine St. Gallen, Canton of St. Gallen

Declaration of Interests: No competing interests are reported.

Ethics Approval Statement: The study was registered with and approved by the regional ethics committee (ID2020-00941) and is registered in the Swissethics COVID 19 database (https://swissethics.ch/covid 19/approved-projects).

Suggested Citation

Korte, Wolfgang and Buljan, Marija and Rösslein, Matthias and Wick, Peter and Golubov, Valentina and Jentsch, Jana and Reut, Michael and Peier, Karen and Nohynek, Brigitte and Fischer, Aldo and Stolz, Raphael and Cettuzzi, Michele, Further Important Characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA Antibody Response, Potentially Influencing Clinical Outcome: Immediate Antibody Degression and Dependency on Sex. THELANCETID-D-20-04784, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3651196 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3651196

Wolfgang Korte (Contact Author)

Zentrum für Labormedizin St. Gallen ( email )

Frohbergstrasse 3
St. Gallen, 9000
Switzerland

Marija Buljan

Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology ( email )

Matthias Rösslein

Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology ( email )

Peter Wick

Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology ( email )

Valentina Golubov

Center for Laboratory Medicine, St. Gallen ( email )

Jana Jentsch

Center for Laboratory Medicine, St. Gallen ( email )

Michael Reut

Center for Laboratory Medicine, St. Gallen ( email )

Karen Peier

Cantonal Corona Study Group ( email )

Brigitte Nohynek

Cantonal Corona Study Group ( email )

Aldo Fischer

Cantonal Corona Study Group ( email )

Raphael Stolz

Cantonal Corona Study Group ( email )

Michele Cettuzzi

Cantonal Corona Study Group ( email )

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