Oil Shocks and the U.S. Economy in a Data-rich Model
43 Pages Posted: 29 Aug 2020 Last revised: 29 Jul 2021
Date Written: July 30, 2021
We investigate the economic effects of three types of oil price shocks on the U.S. economy using a factor augmented vector autoregression framework and 185 monthly macroeconomic indicators from 1978 to 2017. We find that oil specific precautionary demand shocks are the main drivers of fluctuations in the price of crude oil and the U.S. price level, followed by global economic activity oil demand shocks. Further, while increases in the price of oil triggered by oil supply shocks are recessionary and lower U.S. economic activity, those triggered by global economic activity oil demand shocks are associated with increased U.S. economic activity. We also find evidence that monetary policy-makers tighten monetary policy in response to oil demand shocks to mitigate inflationary effects, however we find no such evidence for oil supply shocks. Finally, we find the U.S. dollar real exchange rate depreciates in response to increases in the price of oil caused by both oil demand and supply shocks, however the effects from oil supply shocks are more permanent.
Keywords: Oil Demand Shocks, Oil Supply Shocks, Oil Price, Monetary Policy, Exchange Rate, Factor Model, FAVAR
JEL Classification: C32, E31, E44, E52, F41, Q4
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