AI, Governance and Ethics: Global Perspectives
22 Pages Posted: 20 Oct 2020 Last revised: 19 Apr 2021
Date Written: September 1, 2020
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a technology which is increasingly being utilised in society and the economy worldwide, but there is much disquiet over problematic and dangerous implementations of AI, or indeed, even AI itself deciding to do dangerous and problematic actions. These developments have led to concerns about whether and how AI systems adhere, and will adhere to ethical standards, stimulating a global and multistakeholder conversation on AI ethics, and the production of AI governance initiatives. Such developments form the basis for this chapter, where we give an insight into what is happening in Australia, China, the European Union, India and the US.
We commence with some background to the AI ethics and regulation debates, before proceedings to give an overview of what is happening in different countries and regions, namely Australia, China, the EU (including national level activities in Germany), India and the United States. We provide an analysis of these country profiles, with particular emphasis on the relationship between ethics and law in each location.
Overall we find that AI governance and ethics initiatives are most developed in China and the EU, but the US has been catching up in the last 18 months. India remains an outlier among these ‘large jurisdictions’ by not articulating a set of AI ethics principles, and Australia hints at the challenges a smaller player may face in forging its own path. The focus of these initiatives is beginning to turn to producing legally enforceable outcomes, rather than just purely high level, usually voluntary, principles. However, legal enforceability also requires practical operationalising of norms for AI research and development, and may not always produce desirable outcomes.
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, global governance, regulation, GDPR, China, EU, US, India, Australia
JEL Classification: K2, O3
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