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Recent Progress to Engineer the Functional Biohybrid Robots Actuated by Living Cells

22 Pages Posted: 5 Oct 2020 Publication Status: Accepted

See all articles by Lin Gao

Lin Gao

Xi'an Jiaotong University (XJTU) - Department of Mechanical Engineering; Xi'an Jiaotong University (XJTU) - State key lab for Manufacturing Systems Engineering

M. Usman Akhtar

Xian Jiaotong University, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Shahzad Ahmad

Xian Jiaotong University, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Jiankang He

Xian Jiaotong University, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Qin Lian

Portland State University

Wei Cheng

Xian Jiaotong University, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Jinhua Zhang

Xian Jiaotong University, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Dichen Li

Xian Jiaotong University, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Abstract

Living cells are the highly scalable biological actuators found in nature and are efficient technological solutions to power robotic system. Recently, advancements in biofabrication and tissue engineering have bridged the gap to interface muscle cells with artificial technology. In this review, we summarize the recent progress to engineer the attributes of individual components for the development of fully functional biohybrid robots. First, we discuss the fabrication of biological actuators for biohybrid robots with muscle cells and tissues, including cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscles, insect tissues and neuromuscular tissue in a well-organized pattern of 2D sheets and 3D constructs. Next, we discuss the performance of biohybrid robots for various biomimetic tasks, such as swimming, walking, gripping and pumping. Finally, the challenges in the development of biohybrid robots are proposed from different viewpoints of living materials engineering, multi-scale modeling, 3D printing for manufacture, and multi-functional robotic system development.

Keywords: Biohybrid Robots, fabrication, Cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscles, biomimetics

Suggested Citation

Gao, Lin and Akhtar, M. Usman and Ahmad, Shahzad and He, Jiankang and Lian, Qin and Cheng, Wei and Zhang, Jinhua and Li, Dichen, Recent Progress to Engineer the Functional Biohybrid Robots Actuated by Living Cells (2020). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3687911 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3687911

Lin Gao (Contact Author)

Xi'an Jiaotong University (XJTU) - Department of Mechanical Engineering ( email )

Xian Shaanxi
China

Xi'an Jiaotong University (XJTU) - State key lab for Manufacturing Systems Engineering ( email )

Xian Shaanxi
China

M. Usman Akhtar

Xian Jiaotong University, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Shahzad Ahmad

Xian Jiaotong University, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Jiankang He

Xian Jiaotong University, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Qin Lian

Portland State University ( email )

United States
5037253728 (Phone)

Wei Cheng

Xian Jiaotong University, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Jinhua Zhang

Xian Jiaotong University, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Dichen Li

Xian Jiaotong University, Department of Mechanical Engineering

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