The Interaction of Ethnicity and Deprivation on COVID-19 Mortality Risk: A Retrospective Ecological Study

25 Pages Posted: 16 Sep 2020

See all articles by Kausik Chaudhuri

Kausik Chaudhuri

University of Leeds - Faculty of Business

Anindita Chakrabarti

University of Leeds - Faculty of Business

Jose Martin Lima

Leeds University Business School (LUBS) - Division of Economics

Joht Singh Chandan

University of Birmingham - Institute of Applied Health Research

Siddhartha Bandyopadhyay

University of Birmingham - Department of Economics

Date Written: September 9, 2020

Abstract

Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) populations are at an increased risk of developing COVID-19 and consequentially more severe outcomes compared to White populations. The aim of this study was to quantify how much of the disproportionate disease burden can be attributed to deprivation. An ecological study was conducted using data derived from the Office for National Statistics data at a Local Authority District (LAD) level in England between 1st March-17th April 2020. The primary analysis was to examine how age adjusted COVID-19 mortality depends on the interaction between deprivation and ethnicity using linear regression. The secondary analysis using spatial regression methods allowed for the quantification of the extent of LAD spillover effect of COVID-19 mortality. We find that in LADs with the highest deprivation quartile, where there is a 1% increase in “Black-African (regression coefficient 2.86; 95% CI 1.08 – 4.64)”, “Black-Caribbean (9.66: 95% CI 5.25 – 14.06)” and “Bangladeshi (1.95: 95% CI 1.14 – 2.76)” communities there is a significantly higher age-adjusted COVID-19 mortality compared to respective control populations. In addition, the spatial regression results indicated positive significant correlation between the age-adjusted mortality in one LAD and the age-adjusted mortality in a neighbouring LAD. This suggests that deprivation and its interaction with ethnicity play an important role in explaining COVID-19 mortality. The presence of spatial effects and spillover suggest family structures and social networks play an important role. Social interactions between people across neighbouring regions can also spread the disease.

Note: Funding: None to declare

Declaration of Interest: None to declare

Keywords: COVID-19, inequality, age adjusted mortality, spatial analysis

JEL Classification: C50, I14

Suggested Citation

Chaudhuri, Kausik and Chakrabarti, Anindita and Lima, Jose Martin and Chandan, Joht Singh and Bandyopadhyay, Siddhartha, The Interaction of Ethnicity and Deprivation on COVID-19 Mortality Risk: A Retrospective Ecological Study (September 9, 2020). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3690038 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3690038

Kausik Chaudhuri

University of Leeds - Faculty of Business ( email )

Leeds LS2 9JT
United Kingdom

Anindita Chakrabarti

University of Leeds - Faculty of Business ( email )

Leeds LS2 9JT
United Kingdom

Jose Martin Lima

Leeds University Business School (LUBS) - Division of Economics ( email )

Leeds LS2 9JT
United Kingdom

Joht Singh Chandan

University of Birmingham - Institute of Applied Health Research ( email )

Birmingham, B15 2TT
United Kingdom

Siddhartha Bandyopadhyay (Contact Author)

University of Birmingham - Department of Economics ( email )

Economics Department
Birmingham, B15 2TT
United Kingdom

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